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04-12-2018

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, November 2018

​In November 2018, the foreign-exchange reserve decreased by kr. 0.3 billion to kr. 467.3 billion.

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Press Releases
04-12-2018

Danmarks Nationalbank's comments on the Danish Economic Council's discussion paper autumn 2018

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Statements
03-12-2018

Speech by governor Lars Rohde at the annual meeting of Finance Denmark 2018

Speech by Governor Lars Rohde at the annual meeting of Finance Denmark 3 December 2018.

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Speeches
03-12-2018

Working Paper: Consistency between household-level consumption data from registers and surveys

We explore the consistency at household-level between register-imputed and survey-based consumption figures for Denmark over the period 2002-15. We find that the marginal propensities to consume out of income estimated on the basis of register data are not significantly different to those estimated on the basis of survey data.

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Working paper
03-12-2018

Good chance that Christmas shopping will be contactless

In the 3rd quarter, the Danes made 251 million contactless card payments, corresponding to 61 per cent of all card payments in Danish stores. The proportion of contactless payments is increasing, and compared to last year there has been an increase of 24 percentage points. Accordingly, there is a good opportunity that this year's Christmas shopping will be contactless.

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Payments
30-11-2018

Medium-sized banks are expanding in growth areas

The medium-sized banks have expanded their activities in Aarhus and Copenhagen by opening branches and increasing their lending for housing purposes substantially. While the number of bank branches in Denmark has generally been falling for several years, the medium-sized banks have opened an additional 19 branches since 2012, most of them in growth areas such as Aarhus and Copenhagen.

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News
30-11-2018

Low interest rates and ample lending capacity put pressure on credit standards

Overall, lending growth is limited, but the medium-sized banks have opened new branches and substantially increased lending for housing purposes in growth areas. It is important for the banks to allow for potential risks associated with entering into new market areas and to refrain from using credit standards as a competition parameter. Money laundering problems have spelled out the need for increased focus on measures to combat illegal activities. Efficient anti-money laundering measures call for stronger cross-border cooperation.

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Analysis
30-11-2018

The largest banks satisfy capital requirements in stress test

Danmarks Nationalbank's semi-annual stress test of the Danish banking sector shows that the largest banks satisfy all capital requirements in a severe recession scenario. The analysis also describes Danmarks Nationalbank's approach to making the adverse scenario countercyclical.

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Analysis
30-11-2018

Low interest rates and ample lending capacity put pressure on credit standards

​Following a long period of low interest rates and accommodative financial conditions, there is a basis for banks to assume greater risks when granting loans. That is the conclusion in Danmarks Nationalbank's Financial Stability analysis.

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Press Releases
28-11-2018

Greenlandic economy - Strong growth and labour shortages

Economic growth in Greenland is high these years, and this is set to continue. The main reasons are high fish prices and larger catches. Fisheries are mainly sustainable. Unemployment is low and the risk of overheating high. Consequently, there is a need for tight fiscal policy, and large-scale investments in airports should preferably be implemented gradually. Long-term economic development requires a broader business sector, a labour force with higher qualifications and increased productivity.

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Analysis
28-11-2018

Fixed rate mortgage bonds are popular abroad

Foreign investors continue to buy fixed rate mortgage bonds. In the last three months foreign investors have bought fixed rate mortgage bonds for kr. 11 billion. Foreigners now own 31 per cent of these bonds.

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Portfolio investments
28-11-2018

Fewer mortgage bonds are refinanced

During 2018, mortgage bonds totaling kr. 613 billion have been refinanced. The need for refinancing is expected to be lower in 2019, when mortgage bonds totaling kr. 539 billion mature.

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Securities
27-11-2018

Increased credit growth to Danish businesses

After several years of annual credit growth around zero, total lending by banks and mortgage institutions to Danish businesses has increased by 2.9 per cent so far in 2018. This is the largest increase over the first 10 months of the year since 2008. However, credit growth was several times larger in the years preceding the financial crisis.

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Banking and mortgage lending, balances
27-11-2018

Banks' business models determine their interest margin

In October 2018, the difference between large and medium-sized banks' lending and deposit rates, their interest margins, was around 1 percentage point. The medium-sized banks' interest margin was close to 3.5 per cent whereas the interest margin of large banks was around 2.6 per cent.

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Banking and mortgage lending, interests
20-11-2018

The banking union is not centred round joint liability

Neither the banking union nor the Economic and Monetary Union, EMU, is centred round joint liability. That is why concerns about ”footing the bill” for bank rescues in other member states should not be the key issue in an assessment of the pros and cons of Danish participation.

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Analysis
19-11-2018

Speech by Governor Lars Rohde at the Macroprudential Policy Conference

Speech by Governor Lars Rohde at the Macroprudential Policy Conference in Copenhagen, 19 November 2018.

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Speeches
19-11-2018

Impacts of 2016 guidelines on mortgaging of homes

Since the financial crisis, there has been increased focus on making the financial sector more resilient. One of the tools for achieving this objective is the Danish Financial Supervisory Authority's guidelines from 2016 on prudent credit assessment when granting housing loans in growth areas. These guidelines have made borrowers in growth areas borrow less than borrowers outside the growth areas, but the impact is modest. The modest impact may be due to slow implementation, scope for deviation from the guidelines and the fact that the guidelines were in line with best practice in the institutions.

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Analysis
16-11-2018

Faroese economy - Mounting pressures in the labour market

The Faroese economy is booming, and labour market pressures are high. Fiscal policy should dampen demand in order to mitigate the risk of the economy overheating. Furthermore, the framework of local government finances should be tightened to ensure that the conditions are in place for fiscal policy to have a stabilising effect on the economy in future. The booming economy means that now is a good time to make public finances ready to tackle the higher expenditure associated with the ageing population in the coming decades.

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Analysis
15-11-2018

Working paper: Predicting distresses using deep learning of text segments in annual reports

We develop a probability-of-default model for Danish corporate firms based on deep learning that employs the managements' statements and auditors' reports of the annual reports in addition to the numerical financial variables. Our results show that the text segments provide a statistically significant enhancement of the prediction accuracy compared to models that do not employ the text segments, in particular for large firms. Our results furthermore show that the auditors' reports contain more relevant information than the managements' statements.

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Working paper
14-11-2018

Small decline in direct investments this year

Both outward and inward direct investments have declined slightly in the three first quarters of 2018. They were reduced by kr. 26 and 11 billion respectively after a number of years with progress in outward investments.

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Foreign direct investment, flows
12-11-2018

While the sun is shining, prepare for a rainy day

The financial crisis ten years ago brought large costs to society and – as a consequence – an increase in policymakers’ focus on risks to the financial system as a whole and how to prevent and mitigate them, i.e. macroprudential policy. This paper gives an overview of key features of the Danish financial system and points to current macroprudential policy challenges. The paper sets the stage for a conference on macroprudential policy on 19 November 2018 that Danmarks Nationalbank hosts together with the European Department of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and the Center for Financial Frictions (FRIC) at Copenhagen Business School (CBS).

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Analysis
02-11-2018

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, October 2018

​In October 2018, the foreign-exchange reserve decreased by kr. 298 million to kr. 467.6 billion.

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Press Releases
02-11-2018

Working paper: Consumption Heterogeneity: Micro Drivers and Macro Implications

This paper aims to test the microfoundations of consumption models and quantify the macro implications of heterogeneity in consumption behavior. We propose a new empirical method to estimate the sensitivity of consumption to permanent and transitory income shocks and apply it to administrative data from Denmark. We find that households who stand to lose from an interest rate hike are more sensitive to income shocks than those who stand to gain. This interest rate exposure channel is potentially more important than the standard intertemporal substitution channel.

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Working paper
30-10-2018

Increase in passive investment funds

In the first three quarters of the year, net invest-ments in passive equity funds totalled kr. 13.9 billion. In comparison, investments in active equity funds amounted to kr. 1.3 billion.

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Investment funds
29-10-2018

Publication times change as a result of Target2-Securities connection

​As from today, publication of the daily net position and monthly foreign exchange reserve figures will take place at 5:00 pm instead of 4:00 pm as has so far been the case. The time is changed because of the Danish krone's connection as from today to Target2-Securities, T2S.

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Press Releases
26-10-2018

Working paper: Can machine learning models capture correlations in corporate distresses?

We implement a regularly top-performing machine learning model and find that the added complexity in the model does not imply that the model is better at capturing correlation in corporate distresses compared to traditional distress models. Instead, we propose a frailty model, which allows for correlations in distresses. This model demonstrates competitive performance in terms of ranking firms by their riskiness, while providing accurate risk measures of a corporate loan portfolio.

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Working paper
26-10-2018

Moderation of capital flows since the financial crisis

Capital flows between Denmark and abroad decreased after the financial crisis erupted in the fall of 2008. The capital flows also decreased globally.

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Portfolio investments
26-10-2018

Increasing bond issues financing F5 mortgages

By end-September 2018, bonds totalling kr. 604 billion were issued to fund F5 mortgages. This is more than a twofold increase since September 2012. An F5 mortgage has an adjustable rate, which is fixed every five years. These bonds now fund more than half the Danish adjustable rate mortgages – and a third of adjustable rate mortgages and floaters combined (variable rate mortgage bonds).

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Securities
25-10-2018

Danes repay more on their mortgages

Danish households are increasingly repaying on their mortgage loans. Instalments paid on loans totaled kr. 26.2 billion in the first three quarters of 2018. The comparable figure for last year was kr. 24.3 billion; hence instalments have increased by 7.8 per cent.

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Banking and mortgage lending, interests
25-10-2018

Danes' money is primarily bank deposits

Nearly 95 per cent of the money that the private sector immediately can use for payments is ordinary bank deposits. The rest is cash. While cash payments occur physically, payments with deposits are digital, i.e. directly transfers from your own bank account to the recipient's account, for example by using debit cards or smartphones.

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Banking and mortgage lending, balances
08-10-2018

Banks' credit standards are unchanged for corporate customers

In Danmarks Nationalbank's lending survey for 3rd quarter 2018, banks report that credit standards are unchanged for corporate customers. At the same time, prices are decreasing due to the level of competition.

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Lending survey
02-10-2018

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, September 2018

​In September 2018, the foreign-exchange reserve decreased by kr. 29 million to kr. 467.9 billion.

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Press Releases
28-09-2018

The costs of payments have fallen

The Danish Payments Council has surveyed the social costs of payments in Denmark. The social costs of payments between households and businesses have almost halved in seven years. No methods of payment have become more expensive, neither in physical nor in non-physical trade , and Danish households have access to several methods of payment with low social costs. The aggregate social costs for all types of payment were kr. 15.6 billion in 2016.

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News
28-09-2018

Danes deselect bonds

Households deselected to invest directly in Danish bonds during the past decade. In August 2018 investments in bonds amounted to kr. 35 billion corresponding to 4 per cent of the total stock of securities.

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Securities
28-09-2018

The pension sector holds kr. 1,879 billion worth of shares and bonds abroad

The pension sector holds foreign portfolio investments in shares and bonds worth kr. 1,879 billion. This corresponds to around kr. 400,000 for every adult Dane. The foreign portfolio investments account for a little more than half of the sector's total holdings of securities.

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Portfolio investments
28-09-2018

From foreign debt to large wealth in ten years

Since the financial crisis ten years ago Denmark has built up a considerable international net wealth position which amounted to kr. 1.390 billion in the 2nd quarter of 2018. This corresponds to 65 per cent of GDP and places Denmark as one of Europe's creditor nations. In contrast, Denmark had a foreign net debt corresponding to 8 per cent of GDP in the 2nd quarter of 2008.

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Denmark's international investment position
28-09-2018

Savings-eager danes

The financial net worth of Danish households – the difference between their financial assets and debt – increased by kr. 46 billion in the 1st half of 2018. This corresponds to an increase of kr. 17,000 for the average household, which now has a financial net worth of approximately kr. 1.42 million.

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Financial accounts
27-09-2018

Ten years of fall in interest rates on mortgage loans

Interest rates on Danish mortgage loans have fallen since 2008. From an average interest rate including administration fee of close to 6 per cent in 2008 to under 2.2 per cent in August 2018. This is the lowest level since the beginning of the statistics in 2003.

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Banking and mortgage lending, interests
27-09-2018

30 per cent of mortgage loans are now with fixed rate and repayments

The proportion of fixed rate mortgage loans with repayments for owner-occupied housing and vacation homes reached almost 30 per cent by the end of August 2018. This is the highest share for this mortgage type since 2009.

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Banking and mortgage lending, balances
24-09-2018

Payments between households and firms have become significantly cheaper

​In 2016, social costs of payments between households and firms made up approximately kr. 11 billion, corresponding to 0.5 per cent of GDP. This is almost a 50 per cent reduction compared to 2009.

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Press Releases
12-09-2018

A balanced Danish economy during the boom

The Danish economy is now experiencing one of the longest periods of continuous growth. The upswing has been healthier and more balanced than it was in the mid-2000s, where the economy overheated. Although labour market pressures currently exist, they are not as strong as then. The economy may continue to expand without any imbalances, but experience also shows that it can overheat suddenly and violently.

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News
12-09-2018

Outlook for the danish economy - Boom with no signs of imbalances

The boom in the Danish economy continues, with robust growth and rising employment. Average growth in real GDP in 2017-18 is forecast at 1.8 per cent, with similar levels the next two years. Labour market pressures are mounting, and wage growth has accelerated a little. There is room for this in the economy. In good times it is important to prepare for the period after a cyclical reversal. Fiscal policy should contribute to a continually balanced upswing and should not stimulate demand further. Dampening of growth towards the end of the boom does not call for special economic policy measures.

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Analysis
12-09-2018

Monetary and financial trends - September 2018

The krone has been stable, and it is the longest period without interventions in the currency market since adopting the fixed exchange rate regime in 1982. The ECB continues to normalise its monetary policy and expects to end net purchases of bonds after December 2018. In recent years, Danish households have shifted to loans with lower interest rate risk and loans with amortisation. This makes their disposable income less sensitive to interest rate changes.

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Report
12-09-2018

Financial conditions are supporting the upswing

Housing and equity prices have increased significantly in recent years, while interest rates are exceptionally low. Based on a structural vector autoregressive model, these factors, combined with credit growth, are overall estimated to have contributed 0.3-0.5 percentage points per year to year-on-year GDP growth since 2016. In recent years, the contribution has been at its highest level since prior to the financial crisis in 2008. Financial conditions are expected to continue to stimulate economic growth during the 2018-20 forecast period.

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Analysis
12-09-2018

The Danish economy is growing without signs of considerable imbalances

​The Danish economy is now experiencing one of the longest periods of continuous growth, and it has taken place without considerable imbalances building up. Since the spring of 2013, month after month more people have entered the labour market and unemployment has fallen. This has reinforced labour market pressures. Overall, employment has risen by 200,000 people, helped by previously adopted reforms and an influx of foreign labour.

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Press Releases
10-09-2018

The labour market is slowly tightening

The Danish labour market is faced with mounting capacity pressures, but is still not showing signs of overheating. The impression, based on a broad range of indicators, is one of balanced labour market developments so far during the upswing. Viewed in isolation, a change in the demographics of the working age population has reduced the labour supply since 2008. This emphasises the need for foreign labour to support the labour demand of the upswing.

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Analysis
06-09-2018

Speech by Governor Per Callesen at Finance Denmarks Executive Conference

Speech by Governor Per Callesen at Finance Denmarks Executive Conference, 3 September 2018.

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Speeches
06-09-2018

Cyber resilience in the financial sector

​Most of the key players in the financial sector assess that they have raised their levels of cyber resilience since 2016. A Few have not improved their level. That is the conclusion of a questionnaire survey which follows up a similar survey conducted in 2016.

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Press Releases
06-09-2018

Cyber resilience in the financial sector

Most of the core financial sector participants report that their levels of cyber resilience have been raised compared to 2016. A few core participants have not improved their level. That is one of the findings of a questionnaire survey conducted by Danmarks Nationalbank.

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Analysis
04-09-2018

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, August 2018

​In August 2018, the foreign-exchange reserve decreased by kr. 174 million to kr. 467.9 billion.

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Press Releases
03-09-2018

Very low level of payment card fraud in shops, but change in pattern

In the 2nd quarter of 2018, the level of fraud with Danish payment cards in Danish shops was very low. The level has been low and stable over time. The number of frauds was 3,603 and amounted to kr. 3.2 million.

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Payments
31-08-2018

Today's delay of salary and transfer income payments

​The cause was a specific configuration setting in Danmarks Nationalbank's IT system Kronos.

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Press Releases
28-08-2018

Fixed rate mortgage bonds are attractive for foreigners

Foreign investors owned Danish fixed rate mortgage bonds for kr. 295 billion at the end of July 2018. This corresponds to 29 per cent of the total amount of the bonds. Foreign investors' interest in these bonds has been steadily increasing since the beginning of 2016 where they owned for kr. 154 billion, corresponding to 18 per cent.

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Portfolio investments
28-08-2018

Corporate bonds target foreign investors

In July 2018, Danish non-financial corporations had issued bonds for kr. 197 billion. Bonds issued in foreign currency amounted to 95 per cent and bonds issued in Danish kroner to 5 per cent. Compared to the total outstanding amount, bonds issued in euro have increased through the last decade. In July 2018, 65 per cent of the total amount was issued in euro compared to 50 per cent in July 2008.

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Securities
21-08-2018

MREL for mortgage banks reduces funding needs in times of crisis

Danmarks Nationalbank's calculations show that the mortgage banks' total funding need in periods of diving house prices will be smaller with an MREL than without an MREL. This is because an MREL will increase the mortgage banks' funding need in normal times, thereby ensuring that they are better prepared for periods of falling house prices and an increasing top-up collateral requirement. This will make the funding needs of the mortgage banks less sensitive to house price fluctuations.

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Analysis
20-08-2018

Danmarks Nationalbank's new payment system for the financial sector has gone live

​This weekend Danmarks Nationalbank replaced the most critical payment system of the Danish financial infrastructure, and Monday 20 August is the first banking day with the new system.

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Press Releases
02-08-2018

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, July 2018

​In July 2018, the foreign-exchange reserve decreased by kr. 60 million to kr. 468.1 billion.

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Press Releases
31-07-2018

Private investors own one third of the total UCITS market

By the end of June, Danish private investors held UCITS investment fund shares corresponding to kr. 338 billion, or one third of the total UCITS market value of kr. 958 billion.

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Investment funds
27-07-2018

Danish investors bought both foreign shares and bonds

Danish investors have for a rather long time increased their stock of foreign shares. Hence, in the first half of 2018 they bought foreign shares etc. for kr. 59 billion. Since the beginning of 2016, they have bought shares etc. worth kr. 232 billion.

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Portfolio investments
27-07-2018

No return on stock market in first half-year

Danish listed stocks generated a return, including dividends, of 0 per cent during the first half of 2018. Overall, stock prices have fallen by 1.8 per cent. In contrast, the stock market decline offsets by large dividends.

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Securities
26-07-2018

History of bank lending and deposit rates

Since the second half of the 19th century, the average bank deposit and lending rates have varied considerably. However, common for both rates is that they peaked in 1980 at 12 and 20 per cent, respectively. Today, the two interest rates are at a record low level at close to 0 and 3.5 per cent, respectively.

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Banking and mortgage lending, interests
26-07-2018

The foreign exchange reserve in 200 years

For 200 years, one of Danmarks Nationalbank's main objectives has been to ensure stable prices – an objective which has been fulfilled through the fixed exchange rate policy since the 1980's. Historically, the fulfilment of the objective is reflected in the composition of the foreign exchange reserve.

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Banking and mortgage lending, balances
13-07-2018

The pension sector in a historical perspective

The assets managed by Danish insurance and pension organisations are rapidly approaching 200 per cent of Denmark's gross domestic product, GDP. Over the last 40 years, pension funds have grown into a major role in the financial sector and the Danish economy. A role, that in a historical perspective has been dominated by banks and mortgage institutions.

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Financial accounts
09-07-2018

Competitors' behaviour affects the banks' credit standard

In Danmarks Nationalbank's lending survey 2nd quarter 2018, 6 out of 17 responding banks report that the behaviour of competitors has contributed to an easing of their credit standards for corporate customers.

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Lending survey
06-07-2018

Denmark's international investment position at kr. 1,239 billion

Denmark's international investment position, IIP, was kr. 1,239 billion at the end of the 1st quarter of 2018. This corresponds to 57 per cent of GDP. The IIP is the value of Danish foreign assets worth kr. 6,713 billion less the value of Danes' external liabilities of kr. 5,474 billion.

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Denmark's international investment position
05-07-2018

Why is nominal wage growth so low?

Nominal wage growth has been low since 2010, albeit with decent real wage growth in recent years. This also applies to Denmark’s most important export markets, e.g. Germany. A lower average replacement ratio for unemployment benefits and weak inflation have been contributing to low nominal wage growth in Denmark since 2013.

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Analysis
04-07-2018

Speech by Governor Lars Rohde at the 200th anniversary of Danmarks Nationalbank in 2018

Speech by Governor Lars Rohde at the 200th anniversary of Danmarks Nationalbank 4 July 2018.

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Speeches
04-07-2018

Anniversary publication: Danmarks Nationalbank 1818-2018

Danmarks Nationalbank’s 200-year history has been characterised by long periods of a robust economy, but also by dramatic episodes during which the stability of prices, payment systems and the financial sector have been jeopardised. This anniversary book provides a brief overview of Danmarks Nationalbank’s 200-year history, stressing the elements that are particularly relevant for today’s readers.

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Other Publications
04-07-2018

Anniversary booklet: Danmarks Nationalbank 200 years

Danmarks Nationalbank is the central bank of Denmark. It was established 200 year ago. In this booklet you can read more about the main objectives of Danmarks Nationalbank. Back in 1818, it was a series of dramatic events that led to the establishment of Danmarks Nationalbank. The Napoleonic wars and the galloping inflation made it imperative to secure the currency system and place the responsibility for issuing banknotes with an independent institution. Today, Danmarks Nationalbank's tasks are mainly to ensure trust in the systems that enable the transfer of money between people. It is to oversee the stability of the financial sector and ensure stable prices via the fixed exchange rate policy. With the ultimate objective of ensuring a robust Danish economy.

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Other Publications
03-07-2018

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, June 2018

​In June 2018, the foreign-exchange reserve decreased by kr. 3 million to kr. 468.1 billion.

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Press Releases
02-07-2018

Low interest rates boost bank deposits

Citizens' bank deposits have increased substantially since 2011, currently accounting for 60 per cent of GDP. This is a natural development in view of the growth of the Danish economy and the narrower spread between bond yields and bank deposit rates. This means that citizens suffer a small interest rate loss only by holding deposits with banks at low or zero interest rates rather than holding bonds.

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Analysis
29-06-2018

Refinancing needs significantly reduced

Mortgage bonds totaling kr. 562 billion will be refinanced in 2018. This is a significant decline since 2013, where bonds worth kr. 1,029 billion were refinanced. The recurring refinancing needs arise from the popular adjustable-rate mortgages and mortgages covering loans with reference rates.

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Securities
29-06-2018

Danish investors sold German government bonds in May

In May 2018, Danish investors sold German government bonds worth kr. 15.5 billion, while they bought government bonds from other euro area countries totalling kr. 6.9 billion. They bought other bonds from euro area countries worth kr. 0.7 billion.

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Portfolio investments
28-06-2018

Business deposits for kr. 450 billion get negative interest

Deposits with negative interest have become common among Danish banks and for many of their financial and non-financial business customers. In April 2018, deposits with negative interest rates amounted to kr. 450 billion.

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Banking and mortgage lending, balances
28-06-2018

Record low interest rates on private customers' deposits

The average interest rate on ordinary bank deposits from Danish private customers is now 0.08 per cent – the lowest rate ever. Ordinary deposits characterise deposits which can be withdrawn without notice or used as a means of payment.

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Banking and mortgage lending, interests
27-06-2018

Capital requirements for banks - myths and facts

Capital requirements increase the banks' ability to absorb losses, thereby contributing to the robustness of the banking system. The first part of the analysis looks at the significance of equity capital to banks' weighted funding costs and their ability to meet increased capital requirements. The second part of the analysis describes three new requirements for the banks' composition of liabilities: the countercyclical capital buffer, the minimum requirement for own funds and eligible liabilities, and the completion of Basel III.

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Analysis
27-06-2018

Increasing equity by one krone does not cost one krone

The banks should have larger buffers so that they are more resilient in an economic crisis, which typically leads to losses on lending. That is why the banks have been met by stricter capital requirements since the financial crisis. From time to time it has been indicated that higher capital requirements will cost the banks an equivalent sum. That is not correct, Danmarks Nationalbank points out.

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News
21-06-2018

Danmarks Nationalbank hosts exhibition about its first 200 years

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Press Releases
21-06-2018

PhD Thesis: Essays on Debt and Pensions

The dissertation constitutes three empirical studies on how household savings behaviour is affected by pension and mortgage systems. Specifically, the thesis investigates the effects of tax incentives for saving in retirement accounts, housing wealth effects on home equity extraction, and early withdrawals from pension schemes.

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PhD Theses
19-06-2018

Central government borrowing strategy in the 2nd half of 2018

The targets for sales of government bonds and the outstanding volume of T-bills are maintained at kr. 65 billion and kr. 30 billion, respectively, in the 2nd half of 2018. The expected average sale of government bonds per auction is around kr. 2.5 billion at market value. The on-the-run issues will remain unchanged and focus will be on issuance in the 2-year and 10-year nominal bonds.

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Government Debt
07-06-2018

Speech by Governor Lars Rohde at the VL Summit 7 June 2018

Speech by Governor Lars Rohde at the VL Summit, 7 June 2018.

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Speeches
04-06-2018

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, May 2018

​In May 2018, the foreign-exchange reserve increased by kr. 0.7 billion to kr. 468.1 billion.

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Press Releases
01-06-2018

Payment app tech triggers drop in Danish e-commerce

Use of Danish payment cards in Denmark decreased by 0.1 per cent in the 1st quarter of 2018 compared to the 1st quarter of 2017. Behind this modest decrease is a sharp 20 per cent drop in the point of use category e-commerce, etc. A drop caused by technical changes in the processing of transactions through the Danish payment app MobilePay. However, nothing indicates a real drop in Danish e-commerce.

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Payments
31-05-2018

Lengthy period of increasing risk appetite in parts of the banking sector

The times are good for the financial sector and the risk appetite is high. Credit standards are under pressure and have been eased for quite a while. Especially the medium-sized banks have been easing credit standards and have started gaining market shares. It is essential that the competitive pressure does not ultimately affect the risk appetite of the banking system overall. This development underscores the importance of having well-capitalised banks and of building up the countercyclical capital buffer so that the institutions have funds to mitigate the effects when the economy reverses.

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Analysis
31-05-2018

Danmarks Nationalbank's comments on the Danish Economic Council's discussion paper, spring 2018

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Statements
31-05-2018

Private investors count on large foreign companies

Since the beginning of 2017, Danish private investors have directly invested in selected foreign shares worth kr. 6 billion. Their ten largest investments in foreign companies amounted to almost half of their total investments.

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Portfolio investments
31-05-2018

Large dividend payments to banks' shareholders

Danish listed banks have paid out kr. 11.5 billion in dividends in the first four months of the year. This is more or less the same as for the corresponding period last year. The dividends relate to the financial year 2017 and are typically paid out in relation to the general assemblies in March and April 2018.

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Securities
31-05-2018

Strong pressure on banks' credit standards

The favourable developments in the financial sector continue, and the banks have significant capacity to increase lending. Combined with limited growth in demand for loans, this has intensified the banks’ competition for customers. This means that there is a basis for the banks to lower their credit quality and ease credit conditions.

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News
31-05-2018

Increasing risk appetite in parts of the banking sector

​The medium-sized banks have been easing credit standards for corporate customers for quite a while, and lending growth is high in some medium-sized banks. That is the conclusion in Danmarks Nationalbank's Financial Stability analysis.

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Press Releases
31-05-2018

The largest banks are close to buffer requirements in stress test

Danmarks Nationalbank's semiannual stress test of the banking sector shows that the largest banks generally satisfy their buffer requirements in a severe recession scenario. The mortgage banking sector is for the first time included in the stress test, which now focuses on the banks' capital adequacy at the group level.

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Analysis
30-05-2018

A year and a half with unchanged administration fees

The administration fee on Danes' mortgage loans was, on average, 0.88 per cent in April 2018. It is slightly lower than when it peaked in October 2016, where the latest changes in the fees had an impact. The minor decrease since October 2016 has happened as more Danes have chosen loans with fixed interest rates and / or instalments.

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Banking and mortgage lending, interests
30-05-2018

Danes now have kr. 870 billion deposited in banks

The bank deposits placed by Danish private customers continue to increase. In March and April alone deposits increased by kr. 22 billion, among other things due to large pay-outs from dividends, excess tax, and holiday pay.

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Banking and mortgage lending, balances
18-05-2018

Working Paper: Can Central Banks Boost Corporate Investment: Evidence from the ECB Liquidity Injections

Can monetary stimulus boost corporate investment? We answer this question by studying ECB's 2011-2012 Longer-Term Refinancing Operations (LTROs). While we find that the LTROs helped to decelerate the declined in Eurozone firms' investment our results also show that banks' use of LTRO funds is negatively associated with their clients' investment. Overall, the paper highlights the difficulty of boosting investment by injecting liquidity into the banking system.

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Working paper
09-05-2018

Assessment of the Danish retail payment systems

Danmarks Nationalbank oversees payment and settlement systems in Denmark in order to promote a safe and efficient financial infrastructure. Danmarks Nationalbank has performed an assessment of whether the Danish retail payment systems observe international standards for payment systems. The assessment shows that the systems extensively observe the security and efficiency requirements. Nevertheless, Danmarks Nationalbank recommends improvements in a number of areas.

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Report
03-05-2018

Governor Lars Rohde's statement regarding the Danish FSA's decision concerning Danske Bank's management and control in the Estonian money laundering case

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Statements
02-05-2018

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, April 2018

​In April 2018, the foreign-exchange reserve increased by kr. 0.6 billion to kr. 467.5 billion.

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Press Releases
01-05-2018

Small decline in foreign ownership of Danish government securities

Foreign investors owned 38 per cent of Danish government securities in March 2018. It is a decrease compared to February where the ownership share was 42 per cent. Over a longer period of time, foreign investors' ownership share of Danish government securities has been stable around 40 per cent.

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Portfolio investments
01-05-2018

Large share repurchases among listed companies

Share repurchase programmes are popular among large listed companies as means of distributing income to investors. Danish companies have repurchased shares worth kr. 42.6 billion since last year's annual general meetings in March and April. Over the past ten years kr. 260.1 billion have been returned to investors in share repurchases.

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Securities
30-04-2018

Oversight of the financial infrastructure

This report presents the conclusions of Danmarks Nationalbank's oversight in 2017 of the core payment and settlement systems in Denmark and the most important payment solutions. The core systems and solutions extensively comply with international standards for efficiency and security, though there is still room for improvement. Cyber risks and risks arising from interdependencies remain a focus of Danmarks Nationalbank's oversight. Not all systems have made the same headway in the work regarding cyber security. This work is also carried out at sector level.

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Report
30-04-2018

Housing loans have never been cheaper

The average interest rate incl. administration fees on Danish housing loans declined to 2.19 per cent in March 2018. This is the lowest level ever recorded. Housing loans comprise credit from mortgage institutions and banks, primarily collateralized by real estate.

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Banking and mortgage lending, interests
30-04-2018

Fixed-rate loans are gaining ground

Danes' have moved further towards of fixed rate loans. In all 98 municipalities, the proportion of mortgage loans with fixed rate has increased in the recent year. The movement towards fixed rate has been most significant outside the larger cities.

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Banking and mortgage lending, balances
10-04-2018

Tighter credit standards for housing loans

Almost half of the credit institutions in the lending survey report tightening of credit standards for private customers in the 1st quarter of 2018.

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Lending survey
05-04-2018

Speech by Governor Lars Rohde at Finance and Consulting Club Aarhus

Speech by Governor Lars Rohde at Finance and Consulting Club Aarhus, 4 April 2018.

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Speeches
04-04-2018

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, March 2018

​In March 2018, the foreign-exchange reserve decreased by kr. 80 million to kr. 466.9 billion.

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Press Releases
03-04-2018

Increased interest rate sensitivity in the mortgage market

By the end of February, an interest rate increase of 1 per cent would result in an estimated depreciation of kr. 60 billion in the market of fixed mortgage bonds with an embedded option. This was the highest interest rate sensitivity in over two years.

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Securities
28-03-2018

Market fluctuations had large impact on the IIP in 2017

Denmark's international investment position, IIP, rose by kr. 31 billion in 2017 to kr. 1,169 billion. The balance of payments surplus of kr. 165 billion added to the IIP while negative value adjustments of kr. 134 billion exerted a drag.

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Denmark's international investment position
28-03-2018

Households' average financial net wealth is kr. 1.4 million

Danish households' financial net wealth – the difference between financial assets and liabilities – reached kr. 3,750 billion by the end of 2017. This corresponds to approximately kr. 1.4 million per household, which includes both sole proprietors and employees etc.

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Financial accounts
14-03-2018

The Danish economy is well prepared for a boom

The Danish economy is well prepared for the boom that it is now entering. The economy may continue to expand without any imbalances, but experience also shows that it can overheat suddenly and violently.

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News
14-03-2018

Outlook for the Danish economy - Moderate boom in the coming years

The upswing continued in the 2nd half of 2017 and the Danish economy has entered a boom phase with mounting pressures on the labour market. The expansion has been balanced so far, partly supported by previous reforms that have increased the supply of labour. Growth in GDP is forecast at 1.9 per cent this year and slightly less in the next two years. The economy is well prepared for the boom, which may develop without the build-up of imbalances, but experience shows that the economy can overheat suddenly and violently. The government should be prepared to introduce preventive fiscal tightening with a view to dampening growth in demand if there are signs of overheating.

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Analysis
14-03-2018

Monetary and financial trends – March 2018

The Danish krone has been stable, on the strong side of the central rate vis-à-vis the euro. Danmarks Nationalbank has not intervened in the foreign exchange market in the past eleven months up to the end of February. Government bond yields in Denmark increased towards the end of 2017 and at the beginning of 2018. Companies and households increased their borrowing at a stable, but subdued, rate.

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Report
14-03-2018

Annual report 2017

Danmarks Nationalbank's accounts for 2017 show a loss of kr. 254 million, compared with a profit of kr. 3,928 million in 2016. Much of the loss is attributable to the fact that a large part of the foreign exchange reserve earns negative interest.

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Report
14-03-2018

Danmarks Nationalbank's annual report and Committee of Directors

​Danmarks Nationalbank's accounts for 2017 show a loss of kr. 254 million, compared with a profit of kr. 3,928 million in 2016.

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Press Releases
14-03-2018

Moderate boom in the Danish economy - mounting labour market pressures

​The upswing continued in the 2nd half of 2017 and the Danish economy has now entered a boom phase. Labour market pressures have increased, but so far the upswing has been balanced.

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Press Releases
02-03-2018

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, February 2018

​In February 2018, the foreign-exchange reserve increased by kr. 3.1 billion to kr. 467.0 billion.

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Press Releases
01-03-2018

Speech by Governor Lars Rohde at the National Asset-Liability Management Europe conference

Speech by Governor Lars Rohde at the National Asset-Liability Management Europe conference, 1 March 2018.

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Speeches
01-03-2018

Danes adopt contactless payments

New technology embedded in payment cards is rapidly becoming popular. In the 4th quarter of 2017, the share of contactless card payments in shops and self-service checkouts was 44 per cent. In comparison, this share was merely 4 per cent in the 1st quarter of 2016.

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Payments
28-02-2018

Institutional investors assign more weight to foreign portfolio equity

Danish institutional investors – pension, insurance and investment funds – have purchased foreign portfolio equity and investment fund shares for kr. 168 billion since the beginning of 2016.

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Portfolio investments
28-02-2018

More mortgage loans are financed by 2 per cent bonds

Fixed rate, convertible mortgage bonds have gained ground over the recent years and the low interest rate level has made bonds with at low coupon rate more popular.

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Securities
21-02-2018

The new supplier of Danish banknotes has been chosen

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Press Releases
20-02-2018

Comments on the draft delegated act amending the commission delegated regulation on the Liquidity Coverage Ratio (LCR)

The European Commission has asked for comments on the proposed amendments to the short-term liquidity rules for EU banks known as Liquidity Coverage Ratio, LCR. Danmarks Nationalbank supports the amendments which solve the unwind problem for repos with central banks in a systemic crisis. Danmarks Nationalbank is still concerned about the framework for secured transactions, which can have some unintended consequences. Danmarks Nationalbank encourages the Commission to continue the work towards a general solution of the unwind problem for secured transactions.

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Consultation Response
19-02-2018

Working Paper: Corporate debt maturity and investment over the business cycle

In this paper I study the business cycle dynamics of the maturity structure of the debt of U.S. non-financial firms. To account for the documented facts, I construct a quantitative dynamic equilibrium model in which firms optimally choose their debt maturity structure. The model can match stylized facts about the level and dynamics of the maturity structure of debt, both in the aggregate and along the firm size distribution.

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Working paper
15-02-2018

Currency hedging of US dollars used for the purchase of new fighter aircrafts completed

​Shortly after the turn of the year, Danmarks Nationalbank began to hedge payments for the Danish Defense totalling 3.7 billion US dollars in connection with the purchase of 27 new fighter aircrafts. The hedging is now completed.

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Press Releases
08-02-2018

Danmarks Nationalbank and the financial sector are strengthening their cyber defences

​Danmarks Nationalbank wishes to increase cyber resilience in the most critical part of the Danish financial infrastructure in particular. Consequently, Danmarks Nationalbank and the financial sector have agreed to establish a Danish red team test programme.

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Press Releases
07-02-2018

Globalisation complicates current account interpretation

The analysis examines how globalisation can affect Denmark's current account. Globalisation implies that goods sold abroad by Danish firms to an increasing extent are completely or partially produced abroad. This complicates the interpretation of the developments in imports, exports, investment income and GDP, because they can be affected by the location of firms' head office and internal accounting structure.

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Analysis
02-02-2018

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, January 2018

​In January 2018, the foreign-exchange reserve increased by kr. 2.1 billion to kr. 463.9 billion.

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Press Releases
31-01-2018

Danish government borrowing and debt 2017

Denmark's central government debt was 21 per cent of GDP at the end of 2017. This is a decrease from 2016, attributable to a government budget surplus. In 2017, on average, the central government issued bonds at a yield to maturity of 0.2 per cent and a maturity of 7.5 years. Interest costs for the central government debt totalled 0.8 per cent of GDP. The yield spread to Germany narrowed, and liquidity improved further in the market for Danish government bonds in 2017, where the central government introduced a new primary dealer model.

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Government Debt
31-01-2018

Danish investment funds earn their highest return on Danish stocks

Investment funds, targeted towards both house-holds and institutional investors, received a return of 17 per cent from holding Danish stocks in 2017.

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Investment funds
29-01-2018

Households gain their largest return from stocks

In 2017, Danish households' investments in Danish listed stocks generated a combined return of kr. 51 billion from dividends and price gains.

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Securities
29-01-2018

Largest purchase of foreign portfolio equity since 2006

In 2017, Danish investors bought foreign portfolio shares for kr. 129 billion. This marks the largest yearly purchase of foreign portfolio equity since 2006.

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Portfolio investments
19-01-2018

Opening of 0.1 per cent inflation-linked bullet loan 2030

On 7 February 2018, 0.1 per cent inflation-linked bullet loan 2030 (ISIN: DK0009923724) will be opened. The government bond will be linked to the Danish consumer price index, CPI. The interest payment date will be 15 November and the bond will be repaid on 15 November 2030. The new bond will replace 0.1 per cent inflation-linked bullet loan 2023 as key on-the-run issue. After this the central government can conduct buy-backs in 0.1 per cent inflation-linked bullet loan 2023.

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Government Debt
09-01-2018

Fewer losses on bank and mortgage loans

11 of 23 credit institutions report decreasing impairment charges on corporate customer loans in the 4th quarter of 2017, compared to the preceding quarter. Only 3 respondents experience increasing write-offs. This corresponds to a net figure of -11 (on a scale from -100 to 100) when weighing each answer with the credit institutions' respective market share – indicating a small overall reduction in credit loss on outstanding loans.

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Lending survey
08-01-2018

Prosperity growth facing demographic headwinds

The analysis contributes to the discussion of how high economic growth rates we can expect to see in the future. The analysis shows that on the domestic front the rising average life expectancy in the coming years will curb prosperity growth. However, this development can be countered by reforms which increase labour supply. We conclude that Denmark is well-prepared for the economic challenges entailed by an ageing population because Denmark has built up considerable net foreign assets and the public finances are sustainable.

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Analysis
05-01-2018

Foreign investors own 26 per cent of Danish mortgage bonds

In November 2017, foreign investors bought Danish mortgage bonds for kr. 3.0 billion. Thus the total foreign ownership of Danish mortgage bonds reached kr. 685 billion, equivalent to an ownership share of 26 per cent of the total outstanding amount.

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Portfolio investments
05-01-2018

The value of Danish listed equities is on a high level

The value of Danish listed equities was kr. 2,631 billion by end November 2017. In comparison, this is approximately the same size as the Danish mortgage market.

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Securities
03-01-2018

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, December 2017

​In December 2017, the foreign-exchange reserve increased by kr. 4.2 billion to kr. 468.4 billion.

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Press Releases
22-12-2017

Working Paper: Fiscal tools at the zero lower bound

The paper analyses the effectiveness of fiscal tools at the zero lower bound (ZLB) in a non-linear New Keynesian DSGE model. Although the government spending multiplier increases at the ZLB, its size depends strongly on rational expectations to the liquidity trap length. In light of this finding, market expectations in the beginning of 2009 might indicate that expectations to the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act were too optimistic.

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Working paper
22-12-2017

Denmark's IIP rose slightly in 3rd quarter 2017

Denmark's international investment position, IIP, i.e. Denmark's external assets subtracted liabilities, was kr. 1,119 billion at the end of the 3rd quarter of 2017.

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Denmark's international investment position
22-12-2017

Mortgage lending growth in 78 municipalities

Over the last 12 months, households' mortgage loans have increased in 78 of Denmark's 98 municipalities. The biggest increase – both in relative and absolute terms – has not surprisingly taken place in Copenhagen. Here, mortgage loans have increased by 10.7 per cent, corresponding to approximately kr. 12 billion.

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Banking and mortgage lending, balances
15-12-2017

Speech by Governor Per Callesen at the conference Investment and Investment Finance in Denmark

Speech by Governor Per Callesen at a panel discussion at the Danish FSA's conference "Investment and Investment Finance in Denmark", 15 December 2017.

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Speeches
15-12-2017

Central bank digital currency would not result in better payment solutions

The potential benefits of introducing central bank digital currency in Denmark would not match the considerable challenges resulting from such a decision. Danmarks Nationalbank therefore has no plans to introduce central bank digital currency.

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News
15-12-2017

Central bank digital currency in Denmark?

The analysis concludes that central bank digital currency would not be an improvement of the existing payment solutions in Denmark. Central bank digital currency would fundamentally change Danmarks Nationalbank’s role in the financial system and make it a direct competitor to the commercial banks. The introduction would also lead to risks of financial instability. The potential benefits of introducing central bank digital currency for households and businesses in Denmark would not match the considerable challenges which this introduction would present. Danmarks Nationalbank therefore has no plans to issue central bank digital currency.

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Analysis
15-12-2017

Working Paper: A cost-benefit analysis of capital requirements for the Danish economy

We analyze the costs and benefits of increasing capital requirements for Danish banks. Costs are low if banks suspend dividend payments for two years and if investors' required return falls as banks accumulate new capital. An increase of required capital ratio from its current level reduces the probability of financial crises and the long-lasting output costs associated with these. Based on Danish data and using models for the Danish economy, we thus confirm findings in studies for other economies: The benefits outweigh the social costs of increasing capital ratios.

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Working paper
14-12-2017

Danish Government Debt Policy, Strategy 2018

The target for sales of domestic government bonds and T-bills in 2018 is kr. 65 billion and kr. 30 billion, respectively. This is unchanged from 2017. In 2018, a new index-linked bond will be opened, maturing in 2030. The focus will be on issuance in the existing 2-year and 10-year nominal bonds and in the new index-linked bond.

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Government Debt
14-12-2017

New primary dealer model continues in 2018

The central government's primary dealer model with enhanced requirements and payments has strengthened the market for Danish government securities. That is the background for maintaining the model with payments in 2018. The model has contributed to a more liquid market for government securities and hence to lower financing costs for the central government. Liquidity has been increased through narrower bid-ask spreads and a higher number of banks actively trading Danish government securities.

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Government Debt
12-12-2017

Danish households opt out of cash payments

Danes prefer digital payment solutions to cash. Digital payment solutions are chosen by the youngest Danes in particular, and many young Danes carry little or no cash. Thus, many Danes live more or less without using cash, and even more Danes are expected to live without using cash in the future. However, Denmark is not heading for a cashless society. Citizens who wish to hold cash will still have the option to do so in the future.

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Analysis