Analysis

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19-06-2018

Central government borrowing strategy in the 2nd half of 2018

The targets for sales of government bonds and the outstanding volume of T-bills are maintained at kr. 65 billion and kr. 30 billion, respectively, in the 2nd half of 2018. The expected average sale of government bonds per auction is around kr. 2.5 billion at market value. The on-the-run issues will remain unchanged and focus will be on issuance in the 2-year and 10-year nominal bonds.

31-05-2018

Lengthy period of increasing risk appetite in parts of the banking sector

The times are good for the financial sector and the risk appetite is high. Credit standards are under pressure and have been eased for quite a while. Especially the medium-sized banks have been easing credit standards and have started gaining market shares. It is essential that the competitive pressure does not ultimately affect the risk appetite of the banking system overall. This development underscores the importance of having well-capitalised banks and of building up the countercyclical capital buffer so that the institutions have funds to mitigate the effects when the economy reverses.

31-05-2018

The largest banks are close to buffer requirements in stress test

Danmarks Nationalbank's semiannual stress test of the banking sector shows that the largest banks generally satisfy their buffer requirements in a severe recession scenario. The mortgage banking sector is for the first time included in the stress test, which now focuses on the banks' capital adequacy at the group level.

26-03-2018

Market fluctuations can have a large impact on net foreign assets

This analysis takes a closer look at how market fluctuations affect the value of the Danes' foreign assets and liabilities. There may be large capital gains or losses in the short term, but over a longer period of time accumulated gains and losses are close to zero. It is especially fluctuations in the dollar price, as well as Danish and international stock prices, which give capital gains or losses.

14-03-2018

Outlook for the Danish economy - Moderate boom in the coming years

The upswing continued in the 2nd half of 2017 and the Danish economy has entered a boom phase with mounting pressures on the labour market. The expansion has been balanced so far, partly supported by previous reforms that have increased the supply of labour. Growth in GDP is forecast at 1.9 per cent this year and slightly less in the next two years. The economy is well prepared for the boom, which may develop without the build-up of imbalances, but experience shows that the economy can overheat suddenly and violently. The government should be prepared to introduce preventive fiscal tightening with a view to dampening growth in demand if there are signs of overheating.

07-02-2018

Globalisation complicates current account interpretation

The analysis examines how globalisation can affect Denmark's current account. Globalisation implies that goods sold abroad by Danish firms to an increasing extent are completely or partially produced abroad. This complicates the interpretation of the developments in imports, exports, investment income and GDP, because they can be affected by the location of firms' head office and internal accounting structure.

08-01-2018

Prosperity growth facing demographic headwinds

The analysis contributes to the discussion of how high economic growth rates we can expect to see in the future. The analysis shows that on the domestic front the rising average life expectancy in the coming years will curb prosperity growth. However, this development can be countered by reforms which increase labour supply. We conclude that Denmark is well-prepared for the economic challenges entailed by an ageing population because Denmark has built up considerable net foreign assets and the public finances are sustainable.

15-12-2017

Central bank digital currency in Denmark?

The analysis concludes that central bank digital currency would not be an improvement of the existing payment solutions in Denmark. Central bank digital currency would fundamentally change Danmarks Nationalbank’s role in the financial system and make it a direct competitor to the commercial banks. The introduction would also lead to risks of financial instability. The potential benefits of introducing central bank digital currency for households and businesses in Denmark would not match the considerable challenges which this introduction would present. Danmarks Nationalbank therefore has no plans to issue central bank digital currency.

14-12-2017

Central government borrowing strategy in 2018

The target for sales of domestic government bonds and T-bills in 2018 is kr. 65 billion and kr. 30 billion, respectively. This is unchanged from 2017. In 2018, a new index-linked bond will be opened, maturing in 2030. The focus will be on issuance in the existing 2-year and 10-year nominal bonds and in the new index-linked bond.

14-12-2017

New primary dealer model continues in 2018

The central government's primary dealer model with enhanced requirements and payments has strengthened the market for Danish government securities. That is the background for maintaining the model with payments in 2018. The model has contributed to a more liquid market for government securities and hence to lower financing costs for the central government. Liquidity has been increased through narrower bid-ask spreads and a higher number of banks actively trading Danish government securities.

14-12-2017

Resolution strategy for SIFI groups

This analysis supports Danmarks Nationalbank's recommendation that the principles for resolution of SIFI groups should be set to resolve the SIFIs as single entities in group strategies. The analysis also examines what the strategy means in relation to the special act on mortgage banks and the setting of requirements for eligible liabilities in the systemically important groups.

13-12-2017

The central government will buy the bonds to finance social housing in 2018

When the 2018 Finance Act has been adopted, the central government will buy bonds to finance social housing. The central government expects to purchase bonds for kr. 42.5 billion in 2018. The bond purchases will be financed by issuance of government securities or by drawing on the central government's account. This results in the cheapest possible financing of social housing and the largest saving for the central government.

12-12-2017

Danish households opt out of cash payments

Danes prefer digital payment solutions to cash. Digital payment solutions are chosen by the youngest Danes in particular, and many young Danes carry little or no cash. Thus, many Danes live more or less without using cash, and even more Danes are expected to live without using cash in the future. However, Denmark is not heading for a cashless society. Citizens who wish to hold cash will still have the option to do so in the future.

29-11-2017

Risks are building up in the financial sector

There is a sentiment of optimism in the financial sector. Profits of the credit institutions are rising, and a considerable lending capacity has been built up. This increases credit institutions’ risk appetite, which is reflected in easing of credit standards. Several credit institutions are increasing lending to cyclical industries and to vulnerable households with high debt ratios. At the same time, rising house prices mean that credit growth may take off suddenly.

29-11-2017

A few banks have capital shortfall in severe recession scenario

Danmarks Nationalbank's semiannual stress test of the banking sector shows that the largest banks are close to, and in some cases tap into, their buffer requirements in a severe recession scenario. The stress test focuses on market risk and the losses banks suffer due to falling stock prices, changes in interest rates and increasing credit spreads.

16-11-2017

Extraordinarily high current account surplus is temporary

It appears from the analysis that the very high current account surplus is temporary. The surplus has been extraordinarily high since 2010 – also in comparison to the current business cycle. Corporations' net lending rose sharply in the wake of the financial crisis. Today the surplus mainly reflects high household savings. They save in order to reduce their debt. As consumption and investment increase, the current account surplus will be reduced.

15-11-2017

Banks from more than 100 countries send payments via Kronos

The analysis describes how banks from all over the world safely and efficiently send Danish krone payments to each other via Danmarks Nationalbank's payment system, Kronos. Most Danish banks have an account at Danmarks Nationalbank and participate directly in Kronos, while many foreign banks participate indirectly through an account holder. It is important that the individual bank considers the risks that both direct and indirect participation entails.

29-09-2017

Diffusion of new knowledge benefits firms' productivity

Productivity growth in the Danish economy since 1995 has been lower than previously. This reflects weak productivity growth in services, while manufacturing has maintained its strong momentum. The decline in productivity growth is an international trend. Growth in aggregate productivity is broad-based in Denmark. It is not only driven by a small group of high-productivity firms. This indicates diffusion of knowledge and technological advances. Productivity levels vary considerably across firms within the same industry.

25-09-2017

The Faroese economy – Boom and labour market pressure

The Faroese economy is booming. Unemployment is low, and the construction sector, in particular, is reporting labour shortages. As in earlier boom periods, Faroese fiscal policy seems to be procyclical, with a resultant risk that the economy will overheat. The Faroese government should tighten the fiscal policy, and with the economy in good shape, now is a good time to address the long-term challenges of public finances.

13-09-2017

Outlook for the Danish economy – Solid upswing with increased labour market pressure

The ongoing upswing in the Danish economy is solid, and the labour market pressure has increased. Growth in GDP is projected to rise to 2.3 per cent this year from 1.7 per cent last year, and the Danish economy will be in a boom in the coming years. So far, the upswing has been balanced. There is room for higher pressure on the economy during the boom, but overheating may occur suddenly and vigorously. The government should be prepared to initiate a fiscal tightening with a view to dampening growth in demand.

13-09-2017

Once again labour shortage in construction

The share of construction firms reporting labour shortage has almost reached the level in the mid-00s. Experience testifies to labour shortage affecting all types of construction firms when labour market pressures are high. Further stimulation of demand for construction services would not be advantageous in the current cyclical position.

12-09-2017

Housing taxation agreement stabilises house prices

The effects on house prices of the Housing Tax Agreement are analyzed. From 2021, housing taxes will again dampen fluctuations in house prices and thus economic cycles in general. Towards 2021, the agreement stimulates real estate prices outside the big cities, while lowering prices, e.g. on apartments in Copenhagen. Finally, it is shown that for most home buyers there is no financial incentive to advance home purchases to before 2021 just to ensure a tax reliefe.

16-08-2017

Greenland Challenged Despite Strong Fisheries

Strong economic growth in Greenland in 2016 and 2017 is to a large extent attributable to fisheries. Rising building and construction investments have also boosted growth in Greenland's economy. Despite the good times, the Greenlandic politicians need to address a number of major challenges. It is difficult to combine a sound economy with independence.