Publications


You find Danmarks Nationalbank's publications here. Under Type you can search for the individual type of publication. Danmarks Nationalbank's current publication series is listed in the right-hand box Series types. Publications in previous publication formats can be found by selecting the name of the type you are looking for, e.g. Monetary Review.
Published Download Title
03-12-2020

How does COVID-19 affect r*?

This memo discusses effects of COVID-19 on interest rates through the lens of global movements in the natural real interest rate. While government spending and public debt issuance are likely to cause a rise in r*, r* may decline due to precautionary behaviour. The net effect is uncertain.

25-11-2020

Can capital buffers actually help banks in times of crisis?

Banks' capital buffers should function as a cushion and be able to absorb losses during an economic downturn, so that banks can continue lending to the economy. The usability of buffers might however be limited, if other requirements, such as the leverage ratio requirement and MREL, exceed the capital requirements. This is the case for several of the largest Danish banks. Future amendments to regulation should therefore take into account the interaction between requirements, so that all requirements can serve their purpose.

24-11-2020

Increased uncertainty reduces investment appetite during covid-19

Uncertainty about the future has caused Danish corporations to hold back on investment during the covid-19 outbreak. These are among the conclusions of a new Working Paper in which economists Mikkel Bess, Erik Grenestam, Alessandro Martinello and Jesper Pedersen, Danmarks Nationalbank, have analysed whether uncertainty has an impact on economic activity in Denmark.

24-11-2020

Working Paper: Uncertainty and the real economy: Evidence from Denmark

The language in news articles can be used to measure the perceived level of economic uncertainty. In a model of the Danish economy, increased uncertainty contributed significantly to the drop in investments during the Sovereign Debt Crisis. So far, uncertainty has had a smaller impact on investments during the COVID-19 pandemic.

19-11-2020

Working Paper: Do firms behave differently when nominal interest rates are below zero?

Denmark was the first country in the world to move its key monetary policy rate below zero. Using rich microdata and an event study framework, we find that firms exposed to negative deposit rates to a higher degree than other firms increase their fixed investments and employment.

19-11-2020

Corporations deleverage and invest when charged negative interest rates on bank deposits

Many corporations are now being charged negative interest rates on their bank deposits. These corporations change banks and deleverage to a greater extent than other corporations. They also increase their investment in new capital equipment and create more new jobs.

12-11-2020

Greenlandic economy - Economic growth halted and growing government deficit

The coronavirus pandemic has ended years of solid growth. Travel restrictions have left their mark on tourism and other sectors heavily reliant on foreign visitors. The important fisheries industry is less affected by the global economic downturn, and fisheries risks are particularly associated with lower fish and shellfish prices in the world market. Additional expenditure related to emergency flights, relief packages, etc. is putting a strain on central government finances. Therefore, the outlook is for an increase in government debt, albeit from a low level. For a number of years, growth in public consumption has exceeded budgeted levels. To ensure a sustainable balance between government revenue and expenditure, public sector efficiency measures will be needed going forward.

11-11-2020

Working Paper: Worker heterogeneity, selection, and employment dynamics in the face of aggregate demand and pandemic shocks

We model a COVID recession resulting from a negative demand shock and the need for social distancing, considering the US economy as an example. Low-productivity workers suffer a protracted surge in unemployment and inefficient separations from firms. Unemployment is amplified when nominal interest rates are close to the effective lower bound.

10-11-2020

Danish Mortgage bond liquidity briefly impacted by covid-19

In mid-March, there was great uncertainty on the financial markets, resulting in increasing credit and liquidity costs. The Danish mortgage bond market was also affected, and mortgage rates rose sharply in the course of a few days. This analysis describes the development in the market liquidity on the Danish mortgage bond market in mid-March 2020 with specific focus on the primary issuance market. The analysis shows that mortgage credit institutions were still able to issue and sell bonds on the market, but that market liquidity was significantly reduced during the days with greatest uncertainty

03-11-2020

A gradual green transition supports financial stability

Danmarks Nationalbank has performed a climate stress test to highlight transition risks in the banking sector. The analysis shows that the banks are generally well equipped to handle transition risks. However, a drastic transition in which the banks need to make large impairment charges over a short time frame may result in a capital shortfall. The banks should take climate risks into account in their risk management and capital planning.

27-10-2020

Lower borrowing needs in Danish corporations compared to European during COVID-19

Corporate borrowing has been virtually unchanged in Denmark during the first wave of the pandemic, whereas corporations in a number of European countries have increased their borrowing heavily. The national differences especially reflect varying corporate liquidity needs. Corporate borrowing has been higher in countries that have seen a heavy economic downturn. The capital reserves accumulated by corporations prior to the first coronavirus outbreak have also had an impact on their borrowing needs. Another explanation of the varying borrowing needs and loan supply may be the extensive policy measures implemented by several countries to support corporate liquidity.

26-10-2020

Working Paper: The Impact of Pessimistic Expectations on the Effects of COVID-19-Induced Uncertainty in the Euro Area

A statistical model for euro area macroeconomic aggregates shows that an increase in uncertainty and disagreement about the economic outlook impacts the economy three times as much if the outlook is pessimistic. This result implies that the uncertainty generated by COVID-19 can lead to a 15.1% fall in industrial production.

21-10-2020

Real interest rates are affected by inflation expectations

The real interest rate is important for the economic development and is affected by the nominal interest rate and inflation expectations. This analysis illuminates what the real interest rate is, why it is important for real economy development, and the challenges that may be involved in measuring its size and impact on the economy.

25-09-2020

The labour market is recovering after historically severe setback

The Danish labour market experienced a historically severe setback after the partial shutdown of the economy but is now recovering. This Economic Memo gives a detailed account of the developments on the Danish labour market over the past six months and serves as the foundation for Danmarks Nationalbank’s Outlook for the Danish economy, September 2020. (Memo available in Danish only).

23-09-2020

Outlook for the Danish economy - Prospects of moderate recession the coming year

Since the reopening, economic activity has picked up in large parts of the Danish economy. However, the lockdown resulted in large economic losses, and Danish GDP is expected to decrease by 3.6 per cent overall this year. Internationally, many countries are in deep recession. This puts a damper on Danish export opportunities in the future. At the same time, some domestic industries will be subject to restrictions for a period of time. Recovery will be more gradual for these industries. The different relief packages are useful in the current situation. However, they should be phased out in line with restrictions being lifted, as they hamper business sector dynamics and labour market mobility.

23-09-2020

Monetary and financial trends - Stable financial markets support economy in recession

Financial markets have been relatively calm since end-March. Central banks' actions during the spring are a main reason that financial markets have calmed down. Financing costs for households and non-financial corporations have declined in Denmark, and they are now on the same level as in the start of 2020. The krone exchange rate towards the euro is moderately strengthened since March. At end-August Danmarks Nationalbank had not intervened in the foreign exchange market during the past five months. The monetary interest rates are unchanged as well. Credit growth is low in Denmark compared to the euro area.

21-09-2020

Working Paper: Spending when illiquid savings become liquid: Evidence from Danish wage earners

This paper offers new empirical evidence on the marginal propensity to consume out of an unanticipated liquidity shock. The results show a 43 dollar spending increase for each 100 dollar increase in liquid resources. The estimated spending patterns are consistent with the notion of wealthy hand-to-mouth behaviour.

16-09-2020

Payments before, during and after the corona lockdown

The corona pandemic and the lockdown of Danish society in spring 2020 gave rise to considerable uncertainty for many households. The lockdown and infection fears caused radical changes in consumption patterns and payment habits. This analysis looks at consumer payment habits before, during and after the corona lockdown. The analysis is based on a number of data sources used to draw information on the main trends in payment behaviour in Denmark during the lockdown and the first phases of the reopening.

16-09-2020

Danes primarily opt for electronic payment solutions

In Denmark, consumers typically use their payment card or mobile telephone when paying for goods and services. Our position as one of the world's most digitalised societies is reflected in our payment behaviour. The analysis presents the most important insights into the development of Danes' electronic payment habits based on Danmarks Nationalbank's detailed household survey from 2019.

28-08-2020

How can joint measures to manage cyber risks be prioritised?

Some systemic risks can best be addressed jointly. The Danish financial sector has developed a methodology for prioritising the joint work on cyber risks. The sector works together to identify and address systemic risks on a structured basis. The methodology increases cyber security both for the individual institution and for society as a whole.

11-08-2020

Working Paper: News Uncertainty in Brexit UK

After the Brexit referendum, the behavior of the UK economy defied widespread expectations, as it did not exhibit a V-shaped recession, but a slow decline in production. We show that this pattern of propagation arises when uncertainty is about future, rather than current fundamentals, and if the expected duration of uncertainty is sufficiently long.

06-07-2020

Using input-output methods and high frequency indicators in assessment of GDP in 2020

The memo gives a technical summary of a system developed and used in Danmarks Nationalbank's assessment of the economic impact of the covid-19 crisis. The system combines input-output tables from the national accounts, the input-output model and Danmarks Nationalbank's high-frequency indicators. This allows for a high degree of details with regard to industries and final demands combined with high frequencies indicators for subgroups of private consumption possibly of daily frequencies. (Memo available in Danish only)

06-07-2020

Working Paper: Monetary and Fiscal Policies in Times of Large Debt Unity is Strength

We study the implications of a coordinated fiscal and monetary strategy aiming at creating a controlled rise of inflation to wear away a targeted fraction of debt. Under this strategy, the fiscal authority introduces an emergency budget with no provisions on how it will be balanced, while the monetary authority tolerates a temporary increase in inflation to accommodate the emergency budget.

03-07-2020

Losses on dollar assets contributed to pressure on the Danish krone

A new publication by Danmarks Nationalbank compares the pressure on the krone during the corona crisis with three earlier periods of krone pressure over the past 12 years. The pressure on the krone in March this year was unusual because it was not impacted by for example speculation about the Danish fixed exchange rate policy. Rather, it was caused by Danish institutional investors selling kroner in response to a decline in the value of their foreign assets.

03-07-2020

Pressure on the Danish krone in times of crisis

The Danish krone was under weakening pressure in March 2020, following the outbreak of covid-19. Contrary to earlier episodes of pressure, the pressure in March 2020 was not driven by speculation about the sustainability of the Danish fixed exchange rate policy or the euro. The pressure in March was driven by the domestic insurance and pension sector and the investment fund investors, who sold kroner in response to losses on their foreign exchange assets.

01-07-2020

New tools for assessing the economy

During the corona crisis, Danmarks Nationalbank has implemented new tools for its ongoing monitoring of the Danish economy. These include models for nowcasting gross domestic product, GDP, growth. Nowcasting models are advanced statistical models that process a wide range of key economic indicators and real-time indicators as they are released. The models include figures for employment, unemployment, inflation, house sales and a number of other key economic indicators as they are released. That way, the models can produce nowcasts of GDP growth for the current quarter.

26-06-2020

The effects of the corona shock on the banking sector and the real economy

This economic memo isolates two channels through which the "corona shock" affects the economy: a fall in asset prices and an increase in the dispersion of future shocks to the economy. Both shocks are contractionary, but they operate through different channels. A CCyB that is reactivated early reduces the impact of an asset price shock the most. In contrast, a CCyB that is reactivated late reduces the impact of a volatility shock the most.

24-06-2020

What's the story behind Danish households' rising debt?

Over the past four decades, debt has increased significantly faster than incomes and accounts for approx. 260 per cent of the disposable income of Danish households in 2020. This analysis presents a measure of household structural credit and reviews the economic factors that have contributed to this development. Besides higher incomes, greater wealth and lower borrowing costs have led to increasing debt over a long period of time. Both lower interest rates and regulatory easing have contributed to this development.

24-06-2020

The COVID-19 crises reduces Danish growth potential

Due to the covid19-crisis, it is projected that Danish potential GDP will grow at a slower pace in the coming years. Potential GDP is reduced by 1.1 per cent in 2022 compared to Nationalbanken's forecast from before the covid19 outbreak. The downward revision reflects a decline in structural employment as well as productivity. (Memo available in Danish only)

23-06-2020

Working Paper: The Macroeconomic Effects of Shadow Banking Panics

We study the effects of shadow banking panics in a macroeconomic model with a rich financial system, including deposit-financed retail banks and wholesale-financed shadow banks. The model can quantitatively match the dynamics of key variables around the US financial crisis. Wholesale funding market interventions akin to those implemented by the Federal Reserve in 2008 reduced the fall in output by about half a percentage point. Generally, central bank interventions reduce output volatility and the likelihood of banking panics.

17-06-2020

Outlook for the Danish economy - Prospects of gradual economic recovery

Behavioural changes and measures to contain the spread of coronavirus have hit the Danish and international economy hard, and prospects are for a record economic downturn in the 1st half of 2020. Since mid-April, the Danish economy has gradually reopened and activity has picked up. GDP is expected to contract by 4.1 per cent this year, driven primarily by developments in the first half of the year. The recovery is likely to be sluggish, especially because of subdued foreign demand. As a result, the economy is expected to be in a mild recession by the end of 2022.

17-06-2020

Households' disposable income is supported by compensation schemes for the corporate sector

Since the partial shutdown of Denmark following the covid-19 outbreak, the Parliament has passed several temporary compensation schemes to support companies and sustain employment. Based on simulations using the macroeconometric model ADAM, we find that the compensation schemes can strengthen household disposable income by approx. kr. 15 billion in 2020. (Memo available in Danish only)

17-06-2020

Large drop in Danish exports, but the composition might ease the fall

Danish exports are expected to decline significantly in the coming quarters. However, the composition of Danish exports might ease the fall. Exports of goods account for the majority of Danish exports and are less affected as they largely consist of less cyclical goods. More cyclically sensitive exports are also more employment intensive, and hence employment in export-oriented industries will be hit harder than the actual value of exports. (Memo available in Danish only)

17-06-2020

Coronavirus temporarily lowers private consumption

The corona epidemic has reduced the consumption of Danish households, which will temporarily lower the consumption rate. For a prolonged period, Danish households have saved and are in general well equipped for a contraction of the Danish economy. Therefore, the consumption rate is expected to relatively quickly return to its pre-corona epidemic level. However, a longer lasting epidemic and contraction of the Danish economy can further reduce household consumption. (Memo available in Danish only)

17-06-2020

Monetary and financial trends - Stabilisation of financial markets after COVID-19 turmoil

Financial markets have stabilised after the turmoil in March triggered by COVID-19 and the subsequent actions taken to contain the virus. The turmoil on financial markets led temporarily to higher financing costs for both corporates and households. The financial conditions remain very accommodative, supporting developments in the Danish economy. Monetary policy rates have remained unchanged since 20 March, after Danmarks Nationalbank increased the interest rate on certificates of deposit by 15 basis points as a result of interventions in the foreign exchange market.

17-06-2020

Moderate setback on the housing market

The corona epidemic has caused a temporary reduction in housing market activity and a small drop in housing prices. However, stimulus packages and low interest rates continue to stimulate the demand for housing. Limited price decreases are therefore expected in 2020, and the price level is forecasted to rebound during 2021. Also, most owner-occupied dwellings have relatively low debt ratios, and only a small fraction of home buyers have been employed in industries that are currently very exposed. (Memo available in Danish only)

16-06-2020

Internationale økonomisk-politiske tiltag under covid-19-krisen

Exceptionally large monetary and fiscal policy measures have been implemented globally to counteract the adverse economic consequences of the covid-19 crisis. The analysis first provides an overview of some of the measures taken to support liquidity and lending in the US, Germany, Sweden and Denmark. It then focuses on fiscal measures in the countries' stimulus packages that support demand directly. Finally, the use of state aid in the EU during the crisis is examined. (Memo available in Danish only)

15-06-2020

Expansions do not necessarily end because of old age

The current expansion in the US has been historically long. In Denmark, the expansion has lasted for 10 years. This has increased focus on whether expansions die of old age. The length of expansions varies a lot across 19 OECD countries. About 20 per cent of all expansions have lasted longer than the current Danish expansion. Imbalances increase the risk of expansions dying. Recessions are short, but become longer if imbalances were present during the preceding expansion.

12-06-2020

Strategy announcement - Central government borrowing strategy in the 2nd half of 2020

The target for issuance of domestic government bonds in 2020 is maintained at kr. 125 billion. The on-the-run issues will remain unchanged, and focus will be on issuance in the 2- and 10-year nominal bonds. Part of the borrowing requirement in 2020 is met by short-term issues.

11-06-2020

Working Paper: Dispersed consumption versus compressed output: assessing the sectoral effects of a pandemic

I process credit-card consumption data through an input-output model of sectoral linkages to impute the sector-level output responses to the Covid-19 pandemic. The sector-level consumption responses are highly dispersed and even positive for some. Yet, all sectors suffer from output losses. Production of intermediate goods stabilizes output. Consequently, the sectoral dispersion of final consumption is larger than sectoral dispersion of output produced.

08-06-2020

Large savings go hand-in-hand with high debt

Pension savings in Denmark have increased sharply since the 1990s. Over the same period, Danish household debt has also risen strongly. On average, a kr. 100 increase in pension wealth leads to a kr. 26 increase in total debt. This is one of the conclusions of a working paper in which economists Andreas Kuchler and Henrik Yde Andersen, Danmarks Nationalbank, and Niels Lynggård Hansen, the European Stability Mechanism (ESM), have analysed extensive data on pension savings and household debt.

08-06-2020

Working Paper: Mandatory pension savings and long-run debt accumulation: Evidence from Danish register data

This paper uses two decades of individual level information from Danish administrative registers to investigate the connection between pension wealth and debt accumulation. A 1-dollar increase in pension wealth leads to a 26-cent rise in total debt. Liquidity constraints seem to play a key role, and we couple the crowding-out effect with an increased propensity to use interest-only mortgages.

04-06-2020

Worker flows and reallocation in COVID-19 exposed sectors in the Danish economy

Past worker flows show that among the sectors hit hard by the COVID-19 epidemic, workers in "Transportation" accumulate relatively more human capital. In the event of large worker reallocation, this sector's productivity would be hit harder and need longer to recover due to the loss of firm and sector-specific knowledge and skills of the departing workers.

04-06-2020

Liquidity Reserves of Danish Firms: implications during the COVID-19 epidemic

We analyse the distribution of internal liquidity reserves among Danish firms during normal times. The median firm has reserves covering about one month of "fixed capacity cost". About a third of firms have reserves close to zero. We show that cost and wage compensation schemes, as implemented in Denmark during the current coronavirus epidemic, substantially extend the duration of liquidity reserves for firms with some reserves. Firms with very low reserves have to rely on external sources of liquidity.

27-05-2020

Credit institutions are facing hard times

The coronavirus outbreak has influenced banks’ results in the 1st quarter of 2020 reflected in the largest impairment charges for the largest banks since the 2008-09 financial crisis. How severely the economy and the banks will be affected remains highly uncertain. Credit institutions today enjoy both better capitalisation and higher excess liquidity than in the run-up to previous downturns. But it is important for institutions to ensure sufficient distance to the requirement through issuance of MREL-eligible debt instruments.

27-05-2020

A prolonged recession could squeeze banks

A stress test of the banking sector shows that most banks should have sufficient capital to weather a steep, but temporary economic downturn. The banks are better capitalized than before the financial crisis and can withstand greater losses than those incurred during the financial crisis. If the downturn turns into a longer lasting recession, more banks are at risk of breaching their capital requirements.

18-05-2020

Working Paper: Bad Jobs and Low Inflation

The low rate of inflation observed in the U.S. over the entire past decade is hard to reconcile with traditional measures of labor market slack. We show that an alternative notion of slack that encompasses workers' propensity to search on the job explains this missing inflation.

05-05-2020

Oversight of the financial infrastructure 2019

The report presents the conclusions of Danmarks Nationalbank’s oversight of the Danish financial infrastructure in 2019. The core payment and settlement systems and most important payment solutions extensively comply with international safety and efficiency standards. Risk management has been strengthened across systems and solutions, and work is ongoing to increase cyber resilience, including through the participation in the socalled TIBER-DK tests.

15-04-2020

The Danish government has a good starting point to finance the expenses related to Corona

The support packages passed by the Danish parliament to counter the negative economic impact from the coronavirus means that the central government is expected to increase its spending significantly and will see large but initially temporary shifts in liquidity during the summer. Therefore, it is necessary for the government to show flexibility by using the various financing sources available.

03-04-2020

Danish and international economy hit by pandemic

Economic activity has slowed sharply as a result of the outbreak of coronavirus, the measures to contain the infection and the resulting behavioural changes. A favourable starting point for the Danish economy improves its ability to deal with the economic consequences of the crisis. Danmarks Nationalbank supports the relief packages, which will temporarily help sustain employment and businesses, but more traditional fiscal stimulus may be needed going forward. Public debt will grow as a result of the downturn and relief packages, but there is room for that. For 2020 as a whole, real GDP growth is estimated to be between -3 and -10 per cent. (This publication is a translation of the analysis published 1 April 2020 in Danish only).

03-04-2020

Positive pass-through from negative rates

Monetary policy interest rates are negative in a number of countries, including Denmark. Concern has been expressed that negative rates may, in some cases, have had undesirable effects on bank lending rates. In Denmark, pass-through to bank lending rates remains positive, and there are no indications to suggest that negative rates have weakened bank lending. The pass-through of monetary policy interest rates to bank lending rates slowed around the financial crisis, driven primarily by the banks with the highest risk exposure before the crisis.

03-04-2020

Working Paper: Modest pass-through of monetary policy to retail rates but no reversal

Monetary policy rates are negative in a number of countries, including Denmark. Concern has been expressed that negative rates may, in some cases, have had undesirable effects on bank lending rates. We show that in Denmark, pass-through to bank lending rates remains positive, and we do not find indications to suggest that negative rates have weakened bank lending. The pass-through of monetary policy interest rates to bank lending rates slowed around the financial crisis, and we show that this is driven primarily by the banks with the highest risk exposure before the crisis.

20-03-2020

Annual Report 2019

Danmarks Nationalbank's accounts for 2019 show a profit of kr. 6,096 million, compared with a loss of kr. 24 million in 2018. Both the gold stock, equity exposure and bond holdings contributed significantly to the result for the year. This report is based on information available up to 7 March 2020.

10-03-2020

Euro area remains the little brother in transatlantic relations

The euro area economy and its financial sector remains disproportionately more vulnerable to shocks originating from the US than in reverse, as demonstrated in a brand-new international study with data spanning four decades. In an original empirical study, Eddie Gerba from Danmarks Nationalbank and Danilo Leiva-Leon from Banco de España have analysed and compared the interaction between the financial sector and the macroeconomy in the US and the euro area over the past four decades.

10-03-2020

Working Paper: Macro-financial interactions in a changing world

We measure the time-varying strength of macro-financial linkages within and across the US and euro area economies. The main results show that the euro area is disproportionately more sensitive to shocks in the US macroeconomy and financial sector. Moreover, while macro-financial interactions have steadily increased in the euro area since the late 1980s, they have oscillated in the US, exhibiting very long cycles of macro-financial interdependence.

06-03-2020

Working paper: The impact of inflation targeting: Testing the good luck hypothesis

Was the fall in the level and volatility of inflation over the last 30 years the result of good luck, or good monetary policy? We assess the inflation experience of Canada, an early adopter of an inflation targeting policy. Good luck explains only a minor portion of the changes in inflation after the shift in policy. Most of inflation and output stabilization is explained by the impact on expectations.

04-03-2020

Insurance companies and pension funds continue to invest in unlisted assets

Over recent years, low bond yields and low expected returns on other assets have prompted insurance companies and pension funds (I&P companies) to continue investing more pension savers’ funds in unlisted assets such as wind farms, infrastructure, forestry, unlisted enterprises, private equity funds, properties and alternative types of debt. For the first time, newly developed statistics from Danmarks Nationalbank provide a comprehensive overview of this important development.

27-02-2020

Equity risk premium has increased while interest rates have fallen

Before the financial crisis, investors typically expected an annual return on equities of around 7 per cent, while the return on 10-year treasury bonds was around 4 per cent. Today, the return on 10-year treasury bonds is close to zero, while investors still expect a return of around 7 per cent when investing in equities. The risk premium for investing in the equity market rather than safe assets such as government bonds has thus doubled since the start of the financial crisis more than 10 years ago.

27-02-2020

Do equity prices reflect the ultra-low interest rate environment?

Economic Memo is a new publication series from Danmarks Nationalbank. Please, update your News service settings if you want to receive a notification when the next Economic Memo is available. The first Economic Memo shows that the equity risk premium has doubled after the financial crisis. As a result, financing costs of corporations declined less than monetary policy rates. The memo looks into explanations behind the higher premium.

26-02-2020

Cash payments are declining

Danmarks Nationalbank has conducted a survey of the Danish households' use of cash. According to the survey, more and more Danes opt out of using cash as a means of payment, and there is considerable evidence that this trend will continue in the future. However, an entirely cashless society is not envisaged in the foreseeable future.

04-02-2020

Expiring interest-only mortgages have implications for household expenditure

Interest-only mortgages are very popular in Denmark, currently making up 45 per cent of outstanding mortgage volumes. These loans allow homeowners to postpone repayment on the mortgage principal - typically for up to 10 years after origination - reducing monthly instalments for a period of time. A small share of borrowers need to cut spending in order to fund the rise in mortgage instalments when the 10 year amortization-free period ends. This analysis show that the reduction in expenditure is substantial for the affected homeowners but the overall effect on the Danish economy is very limited.

31-01-2020

Danish government borrowing and debt 2019

Denmark's central government debt amounted to 18 per cent of GDP at the end of 2019. The debt has decreased considerably since 2012, when it peaked after the financial crisis. The central government's financing requirement was met at record-low yields in 2019. The central government issued nominal bonds at an average yield to maturity of -0.33 per cent p.a. and an average maturity of 8 years. Interest costs on the central government debt totalled 0.6 per cent of GDP. In 2019, the central government purchased all the bonds issued for financing social housing. Since early 2018, the central government has purchased bonds for almost kr. 95 billion at market value.

22-01-2020

Working paper: Modeling frailty correlated defaults with multivariate latent factors

It is typically assumed within corporate default modeling that the covariates have a linear effect on the log-hazard scale, no interactions, and that there is only a single additive latent factor on the log-hazard scale. Using a sample of US corporate firms, we show in this paper that these standard assumptions are too strict and that they matter in practice. We propose instead a frailty-model that relaxes these assumptions and takes into account time-varying covariates, while being able to provide forecasts for arbitrary portfolios.

21-01-2020

Stricter lending requirements have made homeowners more robust

Danish authorities have implemented a number of regulations targeting mortgage financing. The new regulations provide incentives for the most indebted homeowners to increase amortization on their mortgages thereby increasing the robustness of the housing market. As the new rules have been implemented, mortgage credit institutions have managed to increase their issuance of new mortgages to first time buyers as well as older existing home owners remortgaging.

09-01-2020

Homeowners reduce consumption when the non-amortisation period ends

Homeowners’ with interest-only mortgages reduce consumption by an average of 3 per cent of income when amortisation starts if they are unable to roll over their interest-only loans into new ones as they might have expected to do. This corresponds to a reduction in expenditure of kr. 14,000 per homeowner per year. This appears from a Working Paper prepared by Henrik Yde Andersen, Senior Economist, Alessia De Stefani, Research Economist and Stine Ludvig Bech, Senior Economist.

09-01-2020

Working paper: Mortgage choice and expenditure over the lifecycle: evidence from expiring interest-only loans

We study how homeowners’ consumption responds to the beginning of the amortization period on interest-only mortgages. In response to an average increase in mortgage instalments worth 9 per cent of annual income, consumption drops by 3 percent of income, in the year when amortization starts. This expenditure cut is persistent, but only affects a small subset of borrowers with high leverage ratios. These borrowers might have been unable to rollover their interest-only loans into new ones.

08-01-2020

Working paper: Banking panic risk and macroeconomic uncertainty

We show that systemic risk in the banking sector breeds macroeconomic uncertainty. We develop a model of a production economy with a banking sector where financial constraints of banks can lead to disastrous banking panics. We find that a higher probability of a banking panic increases uncertainty in the aggregate economy. We explore the implications of this banking panic-driven uncertainty for business cycles, asset prices and macroprudential regulation. Banking panic-driven uncertainty amplifies business cycle volatility and increases risk premia on asset prices. A countercyclical capital buffer lowers both the probability of banking panics and aggregate uncertainty.

18-12-2019

Low prevalence of zombie firms in Denmark

Weak firms, "zombies", account for less than 1.5 per cent of Danish firms, which is low compared with other countries. Interest rates have been falling for several years, but the risk of remaining a zombie has not increased. This indicates that lower interest rates have not resulted in a higher prevalence of zombies. Moreover, there are no indications that banks have eased conditions more for zombies than for other firms.

17-12-2019

Strategy announcement - Central government borrowing strategy 2020

The target for issuance of domestic government bonds and T-bills in 2020 is kr. 75 and kr. 30 billion, respectively. This is unchanged from 2019. Issuance will be focused in the 2- and 10-year maturity segments. A new 30-year nominal bond maturing in 2052 will be opened in the 1st half of the year.

17-12-2019

Globalisation affects measures of wage competitiveness

Danish firms increasingly have goods processed abroad and sell them directly from abroad. This allows for a higher degree of specialisation, as well as capacity expansion. However, when firms outsource production, Danish value added is to some extent decoupled from use of Danish labour. This is a challenge when measuring wage competitiveness, so in this analysis adjustment is made for Danish firms' activities abroad. That provides a more accurate impression of the competitiveness of physical production in Denmark.

11-12-2019

Working paper: What is real and what is not in the global FDI network?

Macro statistics on foreign direct investment (FDI) are blurred by offshore centers with enormous inward and outward investment positions. This paper uses several new data sources to estimate the global FDI network while disentangling real investment and phantom investment and allocating real investment to ultimate investor economies. We find that phantom investment into corporate shells with no substance and no real links to the local economy may account for almost 40 percent of global FDI.

​​​​​​​​​​Since 2014 Danmarks Nationalbank´s publications are issued only in electronic versions as PDF files and most of them also as ePub to use on tablets and smartphones. The electronic alternatives are of high quality, and there are many options for reading the publications on electronic devices.​ 

Text may be copied from Danmarks Nationalbank's publications provided that Danmarks Nationalbank is specifically stated as the source. It is not permitted to amend or distort the contents of the publications. 

 

​​

 
 
 ​

Your news profile

Please choose which categories you wish to receive by subscribing to the news service.  

Please register your e-mail address and select News, Analysis, Recommendation, Report and/or Working Paper.

Your news profile will be activated when confirmed via the e-mail you will receive.

More information

Contact kommunikation@nationalbanken.dk.


Text may be copied from Danmarks Nationalbank's publications, provided that Danmarks Nationalbank is specifically stated as the source. Changes to or misrepresentation of the content are not permitted