Analysis

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24-11-2022

The Greenlandic economy - Pressure on the economy and growing need for reform

Greenland has a booming economy and a marked need for foreign labour. Price increases remain modest due to the country’s special energy infrastructure. Although the Greenlandic economy is doing well, the Greenlandic politicians need to address a number of major challenges if growth is to continue. Fiscal policy is clearly unsustainable in the longer term and, in future, public expenditure cannot be funded under the current taxation rules. There is a growing need for reform of, e.g., the tax system and the education system.

27-10-2022

Monetary and fiscal policy in Denmark

The primary objective of monetary policy is to maintain low and stable inflation. In Denmark the objective is achieved by pegging the Danish krone to the euro. This entails that Danish monetary policy tracks the monetary policy conducted by the European Central Bank. To the extent that developments in the Danish economy deviate from the euro area, domestic fiscal policy can be used as a tool for stabilisation.

21-09-2022

Outlook for the Danish economy - The pressure on the economy should be eased

Inflation is at 40-year high, and central banks across the world are currently tightening monetary policy. Together, these factors are dampening growth prospects for the Danish and international economies for the coming years. However, the combination of high inflation and a very tight Danish labour market carries the risk of self-reinforcing wage and price increases. Therefore, fiscal policy should help reduce the demand pressure as quickly as possible.

21-09-2022

Monetary and financial trends - Tighter monetary policy has made financing more expensive

High inflation and rising inflation expectations have brought about a need to tighten monetary policy for central banks worldwide. Danmarks Nationalbank has followed the ECB's interest rate hikes in accordance with the fixed exchange rate policy. The tightening of monetary policy and developments in the financial markets have increased loan rates for Danish households and companies.

30-08-2022

Regulatory adjustments are to contribute to more effective capital buffers

The interaction between requirements limits capital buffer usability in Denmark. Financial regulation should therefore be adjusted, so that banks are not allowed to use the same capital to meet both capital buffer requirements and other requirements at the same time. This will improve the usability of capital buffers.

23-06-2022

New types of digital money

The money we currently use in Denmark is well-functioning, and new types of digital money are likely to gain a foothold if they offer benefits for citizens and society. Danmarks Nationalbank is working to ensure access to secure and efficient money and payment solutions that are available to the whole society, also in the future. This applies regardless of the solution, provider or technology that may form the basis of new types of digital money. Danmarks Nationalbank is planning to organise a conference on new types of digital money in the 4th quarter of 2022.

09-06-2022

Financial stability - Rising interest rates and prices can challenge banks’ customers

Housing lending is still driven by loans with deferred amortisation, and variable interest rate have become more prevalent. An amortisation requirement for homeowners with a high loan-to-value ratio may contribute to a more resilient housing market. The ability of some companies to service their debt is put under pressure by higher energy and commodity prices and an interest rate hike. (Appendix 1 has been revised 16. June 2022).

09-06-2022

Strategy Announcement - Central government borrowing strategy in the 2nd half of 2022

The target for sales of domestic government bonds and short-term loan programmes in 2022 is kept at kr. 65 billion and kr. 35 billion, respectively. The on-the-run issues remain unchanged and focus will continue to be on issuance in the 2-year and 10-year nominal bonds including the green bond. In September, a new inflation-linked government bond will open.

16-03-2022

Outlook for the Danish economy - War in Ukraine dampens growth and increases inflation

War in Ukraine has in short time become a new and destabilising factor in Danish and global economy. It dampens growth and increase inflation at a time, when inflation and capacity utilisation is already high. Danish economy is in general robust and able to handle new challenges, and is expected to enter a pause in growth. However, there are risks of a fall in activity.

16-03-2022

Monetary and financial trends - Rising inflation and Russian invasion have increased volatility

Rising inflation and Russia’s invasion of Ukraine have led to increased volatility in the financial markets over the past six months. Both short-term and long-term mortgage rates have increased significantly, and equity prices have fallen, leading to tighter financial conditions. (Released in Danish March, 16)

03-03-2022

The use of cash in society

Danmarks Nationalbank has conducted a survey of the use of cash in Denmark. Danes are relying less and less on cash when paying for goods and services in stores, but cash is still used as a store of value and for person-to-person payments. For instance, more than one in three Danes hold cash savings.

22-02-2022

Denmark is among the most digitalised countries when it comes to payments

Danmarks Nationalbank has conducted a survey of the payment behaviour of Danish households. In Denmark, most payments in physical trade and person to person are digital. Digital behaviour is broadly anchored in the population, and the digital behaviour of senior citizens is a key element in making Denmark one of the most digitalised countries when it comes to payments.

27-01-2022

Investors pay a premium for green equities

This analysis examines whether investors are willing to pay a higher price for a company with low CO2e emissions relative to a corresponding company with higher emissions. The analysis finds, other things being equal, that companies with lower emissions have a higher equity price. The reason for the higher price is found to be that their future earnings are connected with lower risks than comparable companies with higher emissions e.g. due to the prospect of a future carbon tax.

22-12-2021

New inflation-linked bond helps to ensure a broad investor base

In the 2nd half of 2022, the Danish central government opens a new inflation-linked bond maturing in 2034. Inflation-linked bonds issued by the Danish central government enable investors to invest in a safe asset whose return tracks Danish consumer price inflation. The main reason why the central government continues to issue inflation-linked bonds is to ensure a broad and stable investor base.

22-12-2021

Strategy announcement - Central government borrowing strategy 2022

The target for sales of domestic government bonds and short-term loan programmes in 2022 is kr. 65 billion and kr. 35 billion, respectively. On 19 January, a green 10-year bond with maturity in 2031 will be opened. A new inflation-linked bond with maturity in 2034 will also be opened in the 2nd half of the year. Issuance will be focused in the 2-year and 10-year maturity segments.

02-12-2021

Financial stability - Increased risks in credit institutions' housing lending

Credit institutions are granting more housing loans to highly indebted homeowners. High loan-to-value ratios may cause vulnerabilities to a sub-sequent fall in house prices. A general requirement for higher down payments and instalments on loans to homeowners with a high loan-to-value ratio may contribute to a more resilient housing market.

02-12-2021

A few of the largest banks are close to buffer requirements under stress

The stress test shows that the banks have sufficient capital to withstand a severe recession scenario, but a few of the systemic banks are close to their buffer requirements. However, the situation would be different for several of the systemic banks if their capital was on a par with their capital target on commencement of the stress test. In this case, several banks would experience significant breaches of the buffer requirements under stress.