Analysis

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12-04-2021

Refinancing has boosted the interest rate pass-through to fixed-rate mortgages

Half of homeowners in Denmark finance their mortgages via fixed rate loans. Danish fixed rate mortgages are special, as they can be re-financed without the outstanding debt being significantly increased. This makes refinancing attractive when interest rates decrease. Declin-ing interest rates since the financial crisis have implied that many homeowners have refinanced their fixed rate mortgages to lower rates. This has increased the interest rate pass-through and thus supported the transmission of monetary policy rates to homeowners' budgets.

17-03-2021

Outlook for the Danish economy – Prospects of a rapid recovery once restrictions are eased

The second wave of the pandemic and new lockdowns have temporarily interrupted economic recovery and resulted in new large losses of activity in large parts of the Danish and international economies during the winter. However, other parts of the economy are seeing high activity, including construction and the housing market. Vaccination of the population and reopening of society have begun. Large savings, disbursement of holiday pay funds and accumulated demand provide a sound basis for a heavy increase in activity when the economy is less constrained by restrictions. Overall, activity is expected to have recovered towards the end of 2021.

17-03-2021

Monetary and financial trends - Accommodative financial conditions support the real economy

Despite long term yields in particular having increased in 2021, the interest rate level is still low. Simultaneously, equity and house prices have increased during the past six month, and the financial conditions are considered accommodative. The Danish krone is moderately strengthened against the euro since March 2020.

11-03-2021

Technical adjustment of the monetary policy instruments

Danmarks Nationalbank introduces one single rate for deposits and one single rate for monetary policy loans. Simultaneously, the difference between the monetary policy rates is narrowed. The adjustments ensure more stable money market rates and thus a more predictable effect on the Danish krone. The adjustments are not intended nor expected to affect the level of money market rates or the Danish krone.

04-03-2021

Crisis management of credit institutions – what is new?

Today, we have crisis management rules in Denmark and the rest of the EU which ensure crisis management of failing credit institutions without the use of government funds. A recent revision of the rules makes it more likely that senior unsecured creditors will have to contribute to the crisis management of a failing credit institution. It is important that senior unsecured creditors are aware of the risk and take it into account in their risk management.

08-02-2021

Are climate change risks priced in the US stock market?

We construct measures of physical and transition risks by conducting textual analysis of climate news. Using U.S. stock prices, we find that only the short-term risks elicited by the political debate are priced. Longer running risks elicited by news on international summits, global warming and natural disasters are not priced.

03-02-2021

Denmark supports the IMF's crisis response

The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has approved a historically large number of loans during the coronavirus crisis. The demand for IMF loans is expected to increase further as a result of the coronavirus crisis and vulnerabilities in a number of countries. Danmarks Nationalbank contributes to the IMF's crisis response and has made new lending resources available to the IMF on behalf of Denmark.

26-01-2021

Data-driven effort strengthens the fight against money laundering

Danmarks Nationalbank, in collaboration with a large Danish bank and other institutional actors, has shown that an innovative risk-based approach based on multiple data sources, among which granular transaction data, can support the fight against economic crime. Realising the full potential of such an approach requires combining data across banks and public institutions.

21-12-2020

Strategy announcement - Central government borrowing strategy 2021

The target for sales of domestic government bonds is kr. 125 billion. Issuance will be focused in the 2-year and 10-year nominal bonds. On 20 January, a new 10-year bond with maturity in 2031 will be opened. A new 2-year bond with maturity in 2024 will also be opened in the 1st half of the year. The target for sales of domestic T-bills is kr. 60 billion, and the outstanding amount of commercial papers will be reduced as the temporary Covid-19 measures are phased out.

16-12-2020

Faroese economy - The Faroese economic boom is losing momentum

Nine months after the outbreak for the corona pandemic, employment on the Faroe Islands is high, unemployment very low, and parts of the economy experience labour shortages. However, exports have lost speed this year on the back of extraordinary growth, and the economic boom now seems to have peaked. In the future, more elderly and less working-aged challenges the sustainability of public finances. It is important to prioritize reforms early on that bring a balance to income and expenses in the future.

15-12-2020

Outlook for the Danish economy - Spread of coronavirus delays recovery

Parts of the Danish economy are dominated by high activity, while other parts are limited by restrictions that delay recovery. Economic growth has slowed down, but is expected to pick up in 2021 as the population is vaccinated and restrictions are eased. Fiscal policy is currently stimulating demand in industries not affected by restrictions and in which activity is already high. Fiscal policy should not be eased further, but temporary relief measures may be extended to industries affected by restrictions.

10-12-2020

Financial stability - Banks should keep their powder dry

So far, the credit institutions have come through the crisis relatively unscathed. With a number of relief packages, the central government has provided a cushion under large parts of the Danish corporate sector. However, credit institutions must prepare for the end of the schemes. In line with the government relief packages being phased out, the credit institutions will have to expect higher losses and a deterioration in the credit quality of their lending. The situation remains highly uncertain, and the credit institutions should be cautious when planning dividend payments.

10-12-2020

A few banks fall short of capital requirements in stress test

A stress test of the banking sector shows that a few banks fall short of the capital buffer requirements in a severe recession scenario. However, due to the suspension of dividend payments and share buybacks, most banks are more resilient to stress than previously. For the first time, Danmarks Nationalbank uses the credit register data to allocate impairment charges more accurately among banks' corporate customers.

25-11-2020

Can capital buffers actually help banks in times of crisis?

Banks' capital buffers should function as a cushion and be able to absorb losses during an economic downturn, so that banks can continue lending to the economy. The usability of buffers might however be limited, if other requirements, such as the leverage ratio requirement and MREL, exceed the capital requirements. This is the case for several of the largest Danish banks. Future amendments to regulation should therefore take into account the interaction between requirements, so that all requirements can serve their purpose.

19-11-2020

Corporations deleverage and invest when charged negative interest rates on bank deposits

Many corporations are now being charged negative interest rates on their bank deposits. These corporations change banks and deleverage to a greater extent than other corporations. They also increase their investment in new capital equipment and create more new jobs.

12-11-2020

Greenlandic economy - Economic growth halted and growing government deficit

The coronavirus pandemic has ended years of solid growth. Travel restrictions have left their mark on tourism and other sectors heavily reliant on foreign visitors. The important fisheries industry is less affected by the global economic downturn, and fisheries risks are particularly associated with lower fish and shellfish prices in the world market. Additional expenditure related to emergency flights, relief packages, etc. is putting a strain on central government finances. Therefore, the outlook is for an increase in government debt, albeit from a low level. For a number of years, growth in public consumption has exceeded budgeted levels. To ensure a sustainable balance between government revenue and expenditure, public sector efficiency measures will be needed going forward.

10-11-2020

Danish Mortgage bond liquidity briefly impacted by covid-19

In mid-March, there was great uncertainty on the financial markets, resulting in increasing credit and liquidity costs. The Danish mortgage bond market was also affected, and mortgage rates rose sharply in the course of a few days. This analysis describes the development in the market liquidity on the Danish mortgage bond market in mid-March 2020 with specific focus on the primary issuance market. The analysis shows that mortgage credit institutions were still able to issue and sell bonds on the market, but that market liquidity was significantly reduced during the days with greatest uncertainty

03-11-2020

A gradual green transition supports financial stability

Danmarks Nationalbank has performed a climate stress test to highlight transition risks in the banking sector. The analysis shows that the banks are generally well equipped to handle transition risks. However, a drastic transition in which the banks need to make large impairment charges over a short time frame may result in a capital shortfall. The banks should take climate risks into account in their risk management and capital planning.

27-10-2020

Lower borrowing needs in Danish corporations compared to European during COVID-19

Corporate borrowing has been virtually unchanged in Denmark during the first wave of the pandemic, whereas corporations in a number of European countries have increased their borrowing heavily. The national differences especially reflect varying corporate liquidity needs. Corporate borrowing has been higher in countries that have seen a heavy economic downturn. The capital reserves accumulated by corporations prior to the first coronavirus outbreak have also had an impact on their borrowing needs. Another explanation of the varying borrowing needs and loan supply may be the extensive policy measures implemented by several countries to support corporate liquidity.

21-10-2020

Real interest rates are affected by inflation expectations

The real interest rate is important for the economic development and is affected by the nominal interest rate and inflation expectations. This analysis illuminates what the real interest rate is, why it is important for real economy development, and the challenges that may be involved in measuring its size and impact on the economy.

23-09-2020

Outlook for the Danish economy - Prospects of moderate recession the coming year

Since the reopening, economic activity has picked up in large parts of the Danish economy. However, the lockdown resulted in large economic losses, and Danish GDP is expected to decrease by 3.6 per cent overall this year. Internationally, many countries are in deep recession. This puts a damper on Danish export opportunities in the future. At the same time, some domestic industries will be subject to restrictions for a period of time. Recovery will be more gradual for these industries. The different relief packages are useful in the current situation. However, they should be phased out in line with restrictions being lifted, as they hamper business sector dynamics and labour market mobility.

23-09-2020

Monetary and financial trends - Stable financial markets support economy in recession

Financial markets have been relatively calm since end-March. Central banks' actions during the spring are a main reason that financial markets have calmed down. Financing costs for households and non-financial corporations have declined in Denmark, and they are now on the same level as in the start of 2020. The krone exchange rate towards the euro is moderately strengthened since March. At end-August Danmarks Nationalbank had not intervened in the foreign exchange market during the past five months. The monetary interest rates are unchanged as well. Credit growth is low in Denmark compared to the euro area.

16-09-2020

Payments before, during and after the corona lockdown

The corona pandemic and the lockdown of Danish society in spring 2020 gave rise to considerable uncertainty for many households. The lockdown and infection fears caused radical changes in consumption patterns and payment habits. This analysis looks at consumer payment habits before, during and after the corona lockdown. The analysis is based on a number of data sources used to draw information on the main trends in payment behaviour in Denmark during the lockdown and the first phases of the reopening.

16-09-2020

Danes primarily opt for electronic payment solutions

In Denmark, consumers typically use their payment card or mobile telephone when paying for goods and services. Our position as one of the world's most digitalised societies is reflected in our payment behaviour. The analysis presents the most important insights into the development of Danes' electronic payment habits based on Danmarks Nationalbank's detailed household survey from 2019.

28-08-2020

How can joint measures to manage cyber risks be prioritised?

Some systemic risks can best be addressed jointly. The Danish financial sector has developed a methodology for prioritising the joint work on cyber risks. The sector works together to identify and address systemic risks on a structured basis. The methodology increases cyber security both for the individual institution and for society as a whole.

24-06-2020

What's the story behind Danish households' rising debt?

Over the past four decades, debt has increased significantly faster than incomes and accounts for approx. 260 per cent of the disposable income of Danish households in 2020. This analysis presents a measure of household structural credit and reviews the economic factors that have contributed to this development. Besides higher incomes, greater wealth and lower borrowing costs have led to increasing debt over a long period of time. Both lower interest rates and regulatory easing have contributed to this development.

17-06-2020

Outlook for the Danish economy - Prospects of gradual economic recovery

Behavioural changes and measures to contain the spread of coronavirus have hit the Danish and international economy hard, and prospects are for a record economic downturn in the 1st half of 2020. Since mid-April, the Danish economy has gradually reopened and activity has picked up. GDP is expected to contract by 4.1 per cent this year, driven primarily by developments in the first half of the year. The recovery is likely to be sluggish, especially because of subdued foreign demand. As a result, the economy is expected to be in a mild recession by the end of 2022.

17-06-2020

Monetary and financial trends - Stabilisation of financial markets after COVID-19 turmoil

Financial markets have stabilised after the turmoil in March triggered by COVID-19 and the subsequent actions taken to contain the virus. The turmoil on financial markets led temporarily to higher financing costs for both corporates and households. The financial conditions remain very accommodative, supporting developments in the Danish economy. Monetary policy rates have remained unchanged since 20 March, after Danmarks Nationalbank increased the interest rate on certificates of deposit by 15 basis points as a result of interventions in the foreign exchange market.

15-06-2020

Expansions do not necessarily end because of old age

The current expansion in the US has been historically long. In Denmark, the expansion has lasted for 10 years. This has increased focus on whether expansions die of old age. The length of expansions varies a lot across 19 OECD countries. About 20 per cent of all expansions have lasted longer than the current Danish expansion. Imbalances increase the risk of expansions dying. Recessions are short, but become longer if imbalances were present during the preceding expansion.

12-06-2020

Strategy announcement - Central government borrowing strategy in the 2nd half of 2020

The target for issuance of domestic government bonds in 2020 is maintained at kr. 125 billion. The on-the-run issues will remain unchanged, and focus will be on issuance in the 2- and 10-year nominal bonds. Part of the borrowing requirement in 2020 is met by short-term issues.

27-05-2020

Credit institutions are facing hard times

The coronavirus outbreak has influenced banks’ results in the 1st quarter of 2020 reflected in the largest impairment charges for the largest banks since the 2008-09 financial crisis. How severely the economy and the banks will be affected remains highly uncertain. Credit institutions today enjoy both better capitalisation and higher excess liquidity than in the run-up to previous downturns. But it is important for institutions to ensure sufficient distance to the requirement through issuance of MREL-eligible debt instruments.

27-05-2020

A prolonged recession could squeeze banks

A stress test of the banking sector shows that most banks should have sufficient capital to weather a steep, but temporary economic downturn. The banks are better capitalized than before the financial crisis and can withstand greater losses than those incurred during the financial crisis. If the downturn turns into a longer lasting recession, more banks are at risk of breaching their capital requirements.