News

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27-11-2020

Danmarks Nationalbank becomes owner and administrator of new Danish reference rate

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Press Releases
27-11-2020

The pension sector sells foreign government bonds

The Danish insurance and pension sector has sold foreign government bonds worth kr. 27 billion since March 2020, primarily euro area government bonds, with the largest divestment in Spanish, Irish and German government bonds.

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Portfolio investments
27-11-2020

Fewer mortgage bonds with coupons exceeding 1 per cent

Since October 2019, the volume of 30-year fixed rate callable mortgage bonds with a coupon rate exceeding 1 per cent has been reduced by kr. 261 billion, entailing that their share has declined from close to two thirds to only about one third of the outstanding volume of 30-year fixed rate mortgage bonds, totalling kr. 998 billion in October 2020.

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Securities
26-11-2020

Thawed holiday pay gets deposits over the trillion

At the end of October, total Danish private customers deposits reached kr. 1,020 billion, exceeding kr. 1 trillion for the first time ever. In October alone, Danes increased their deposits by no less than kr. 28.6 billion, boosted by the extraordinary disbursement of frozen holiday pay under which a total net amount of kr. 28.2 billion was disbursed, according to figures from ATP.

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Banking and mortgage lending, interests
26-11-2020

Long remaining maturity on Danes' mortgage debt

Long remaining maturity is a particular characteristic on Danes' mortgage debt. At the end of the 3rd quarter of 2020, the remaining maturity of 59.9 per cent of all Danes' mortgage debt was between 25 and 30 years. Approximately half of the outstanding debt is in the form of 30-year loans disbursed within the past year, either as new loans or as refinancing of existing loans to new loans with 30-year maturities.

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Banking and mortgage lending, balances
25-11-2020

Can capital buffers actually help banks in times of crisis?

Banks' capital buffers should function as a cushion and be able to absorb losses during an economic downturn, so that banks can continue lending to the economy. The usability of buffers might however be limited, if other requirements, such as the leverage ratio requirement and MREL, exceed the capital requirements. This is the case for several of the largest Danish banks. Future amendments to regulation should therefore take into account the interaction between requirements, so that all requirements can serve their purpose.

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Analysis
24-11-2020

Increased uncertainty reduces investment appetite during covid-19

Uncertainty about the future has caused Danish corporations to hold back on investment during the covid-19 outbreak. These are among the conclusions of a new Working Paper in which economists Mikkel Bess, Erik Grenestam, Alessandro Martinello and Jesper Pedersen, Danmarks Nationalbank, have analysed whether uncertainty has an impact on economic activity in Denmark.

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News
24-11-2020

Working Paper: Uncertainty and the real economy: Evidence from Denmark

The language in news articles can be used to measure the perceived level of economic uncertainty. In a model of the Danish economy, increased uncertainty contributed significantly to the drop in investments during the Sovereign Debt Crisis. So far, uncertainty has had a smaller impact on investments during the COVID-19 pandemic.

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Working paper
19-11-2020

Working Paper: Do firms behave differently when nominal interest rates are below zero?

Denmark was the first country in the world to move its key monetary policy rate below zero. Using rich microdata and an event study framework, we find that firms exposed to negative deposit rates to a higher degree than other firms increase their fixed investments and employment.

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Working paper
19-11-2020

Corporations deleverage and invest when charged negative interest rates on bank deposits

Many corporations are now being charged negative interest rates on their bank deposits. These corporations change banks and deleverage to a greater extent than other corporations. They also increase their investment in new capital equipment and create more new jobs.

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Analysis
17-11-2020

New editions of 500-krone banknote issued

​Danmarks Nationalbank has issued new, updated 500-krone banknotes. The new banknotes are very similar to the existing banknotes, but there are slight differences because several new security features have been added.

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Press Releases
17-11-2020

New versions of Danish banknotes

On 17 November 2020, new 500-krone banknotes will be introduced in Denmark.

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Danish banknotes
13-11-2020

Decline in foreign direct investments in USA

Danish investors decreased their outward foreign investments in USA by kr. 21 billion in the first three quarters of 2020. This is mainly driven by a decline in intercompany debt in manufacturing and it is due to American subsidiaries placing excess liquidity in their Danish parent companies.

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Foreign direct investment, flows
12-11-2020

Greenlandic economy - Economic growth halted and growing government deficit

The coronavirus pandemic has ended years of solid growth. Travel restrictions have left their mark on tourism and other sectors heavily reliant on foreign visitors. The important fisheries industry is less affected by the global economic downturn, and fisheries risks are particularly associated with lower fish and shellfish prices in the world market. Additional expenditure related to emergency flights, relief packages, etc. is putting a strain on central government finances. Therefore, the outlook is for an increase in government debt, albeit from a low level. For a number of years, growth in public consumption has exceeded budgeted levels. To ensure a sustainable balance between government revenue and expenditure, public sector efficiency measures will be needed going forward.

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Analysis
12-11-2020

Scandinavian central banks in new cooperation

​The central banks of Denmark, Norway and Sweden have entered into a new agreement regarding principles for central bank currency swap facilities to strengthen contingency for crisis situations and promote financial stability in the region.

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Press Releases
11-11-2020

Working Paper: Worker heterogeneity, selection, and employment dynamics in the face of aggregate demand and pandemic shocks

We model a COVID recession resulting from a negative demand shock and the need for social distancing, considering the US economy as an example. Low-productivity workers suffer a protracted surge in unemployment and inefficient separations from firms. Unemployment is amplified when nominal interest rates are close to the effective lower bound.

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Working paper
10-11-2020

Danish Mortgage bond liquidity briefly impacted by covid-19

In mid-March, there was great uncertainty on the financial markets, resulting in increasing credit and liquidity costs. The Danish mortgage bond market was also affected, and mortgage rates rose sharply in the course of a few days. This analysis describes the development in the market liquidity on the Danish mortgage bond market in mid-March 2020 with specific focus on the primary issuance market. The analysis shows that mortgage credit institutions were still able to issue and sell bonds on the market, but that market liquidity was significantly reduced during the days with greatest uncertainty

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Analysis
03-11-2020

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, October 2020

​In October 2020, the foreign-exchange reserve increased by kr. 5.7 billion to kr. 461.4 billion.

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Press Releases
03-11-2020

A gradual green transition supports financial stability

Danmarks Nationalbank has performed a climate stress test to highlight transition risks in the banking sector. The analysis shows that the banks are generally well equipped to handle transition risks. However, a drastic transition in which the banks need to make large impairment charges over a short time frame may result in a capital shortfall. The banks should take climate risks into account in their risk management and capital planning.

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Analysis
02-11-2020

Foreign tourists' consumption more than halved

At the end of the 3rd quarter of 2020 card turnover from foreign cards, foreigners' consumption, in physical points of sale is about 57 per cent lower compared to the same point in time last year. This corresponds to a decline of kr. 11.9 billion, of which kr. 4.8 billion is attributed to the 3rd quarter.

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Payments
30-10-2020

Passive investments funds are growing

Since January 2018, total assets in passively managed equity funds have almost doubled from kr. 43 billion to kr. 85 billion. Most of this change is driven by new investments amounting to kr. 36 billion, while the value of the investment increased by kr. 5 billion.

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Investment funds
28-10-2020

Danish investors buy North American shares

Since January 2020, Danish investors have bought foreign shares for kr. 88 billion. The investments have primarily been in shares issued in North America. Danish investors own foreign shares for kr. 1,386 billion of which kr. 766 billion are issued in North America and kr. 403 billion are issued in Europe.

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Portfolio investments
28-10-2020

Half a year with Danish shares in comeback

With a return of 2.4 pct. in September, the Danish listed shares have now given a positive return for the sixth month in a row. Thus, at the end of September the total value of the Danish stock market is kr. 3,340 billion.

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Securities
27-10-2020

Lower borrowing needs in Danish corporations compared to European during COVID-19

Corporate borrowing has been virtually unchanged in Denmark during the first wave of the pandemic, whereas corporations in a number of European countries have increased their borrowing heavily. The national differences especially reflect varying corporate liquidity needs. Corporate borrowing has been higher in countries that have seen a heavy economic downturn. The capital reserves accumulated by corporations prior to the first coronavirus outbreak have also had an impact on their borrowing needs. Another explanation of the varying borrowing needs and loan supply may be the extensive policy measures implemented by several countries to support corporate liquidity.

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Analysis
27-10-2020

Danes repay more on their mortgage loans

In the last four quarters, households have increased the repayments on their mortgage loans by kr. 998 on average per borrowed million. The total annual repayment per borrowed million is now on average kr. 24,212, corresponding to an installment percentage of 2.4 per cent. The Danes have repaid kr. 6.0 billion on fixed-rate loans in 3rd quarter 2020, while the repayments on variable-rate loans were kr. 4.4 billion.

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Banking and mortgage lending, interests
27-10-2020

Top 1 per cent has more than 20 per cent of the deposits

One percent of Danish private customers accounted for 20.7 per cent of the total deposits in the banks of kr. 801.8 billion at the beginning of 2020. These customers all had more than kr. 1.8 million in bank deposits and on average kr. 2.8 million. In comparison, the half of the Danes with the lowest deposits had 5.2 per cent of the total deposits.

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Banking and mortgage lending, balances
26-10-2020

Working Paper: The Impact of Pessimistic Expectations on the Effects of COVID-19-Induced Uncertainty in the Euro Area

A statistical model for euro area macroeconomic aggregates shows that an increase in uncertainty and disagreement about the economic outlook impacts the economy three times as much if the outlook is pessimistic. This result implies that the uncertainty generated by COVID-19 can lead to a 15.1% fall in industrial production.

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Working paper
22-10-2020

Danmarks Nationalbank's comments on the Economic Council's Autumn 2020 report

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Statements
21-10-2020

Issuance of 2-year dollar bond

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Government debt news
21-10-2020

Real interest rates are affected by inflation expectations

The real interest rate is important for the economic development and is affected by the nominal interest rate and inflation expectations. This analysis illuminates what the real interest rate is, why it is important for real economy development, and the challenges that may be involved in measuring its size and impact on the economy.

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Analysis
14-10-2020

FDI often controlled from the USA

In 2019, inward FDI in Denmark was worth kr. 881 billion. About kr. 219 billion was ultimately controlled from the USA, making the USA the largest investor in Denmark. This appears from Danmarks Nationalbank's annual FDI statistics on ultimate investor country, which are published today.

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Foreign direct investment, stocks
14-10-2020

Foreign direct investment often passes through holding companies

In 2019, the value of inward FDI in Denmark increased by kr. 53 billion to kr. 811 billion. Inward FDI in Denmark often passes through holding companies. Looking at investments passing through holding companies, most inward FDI in Denmark is made in business service, trade and transport and manufacturing industry. Danish outward FDI increased by kr. 90 billion to kr. 1,453 billion. The main driver is a rise in equity investments by Danish firms through acquisitions and capital increases.

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Foreign direct investment, stocks
08-10-2020

Decreasing demand and increasing impairments

In Danmarks Nationalbank's lending survey for the 3rd quarter of 2020, 13 out of 19 banks report that loan demand from existing corporate customers has decreased from the 2nd to the 3rd quarter. 4 of the 13 banks report that demand has decreased a lot. The remaining 9 banks report that demand has decreased a bit. The majority of the remaining banks answer that loan demand is unchanged. In the same period, 8 banks report that the proportion of impairments and losses has increased compared to the 2nd quarter. 6 of the 8 banks expect a further increase in impairments and losses in the 4th quarter.

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Lending survey
02-10-2020

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, September 2020

​In September 2020, the foreign-exchange reserve increased by kr. 0.1 billion to kr. 455.7 billion.

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Press Releases
30-09-2020

Denmark's IIP increased by kr. 16 billion

Denmark's international investment position, IIP, increased in the 2nd quarter of 2020 by kr. 16 billion in the wake of the decline of kr. 289 billion in the 1st quarter of 2020. Hence, the increase in the 2nd quarter could not offset the decrease in the 1st quarter, which was primarily due to price losses on Dane's holdings of foreign stocks.

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Denmark's international investment position
30-09-2020

The Danes' wealth regained much of the loss

The net financial wealth of Danish households increased in the 2nd quarter by kr. 380 billion. Thus, 72 per cent of the significant losses of kr. 525 billion in the 1st quarter are recovered overall. Households' net financial wealth is kr. 5,272 billion at the end of the 2nd quarter.

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Financial accounts
28-09-2020

Large sale of Danish government securities during the corona crisis

On the behalf of the Danish government, the Danish central bank has net sold government securities for kr. 260 billion since March. Foreign investors have increased their holdings by a total of kr. 154 billion while domestic investors have increased their holdings by the remaining kr. 106 billion.

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Securities
28-09-2020

Large purchases of foreign bonds and stocks from April to August

From April to August, Danish investors have purchased foreign bonds for kr. 86 billion and foreign stocks incl. investment funds for kr. 108 billion. The purchase occurred after the significant sale of foreign securities in March where closures and uncertainties caused a large decline in prices on global stock markets.

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Portfolio investments
25-09-2020

The labour market is recovering after historically severe setback

The Danish labour market experienced a historically severe setback after the partial shutdown of the economy but is now recovering. This Economic Memo gives a detailed account of the developments on the Danish labour market over the past six months and serves as the foundation for Danmarks Nationalbank’s Outlook for the Danish economy, September 2020. (Memo available in Danish only).

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Economic Memo
25-09-2020

Fixed-rate mortgage loans now dominate

More than half of the Danish homeowners' total mortgage loans of kr. 1,712 billion is now again with a fixed interest rate, more precisely kr. 856.6 billion. The last time fixed-rate loans accounted for more than half of the loans, was in 2009. The lowest level was in 2012 with just 31.5 per cent.

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Banking and mortgage lending, balances
25-09-2020

Homeowners now pay 1.61 percent on average

The interest rate including administration fees on the Danes' mortgage loans in August is on average 1.61 per cent p.a. This corresponds to an annual expense before taxes of kr. 16,100 per borrowed million. The kr. 8,100 of this is fees to the mortgage credit institution, while the remaining kr. 8,000 is interest payments to the bond investors behind the loan.

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Banking and mortgage lending, interests
23-09-2020

Outlook for the Danish economy - Prospects of moderate recession the coming year

Since the reopening, economic activity has picked up in large parts of the Danish economy. However, the lockdown resulted in large economic losses, and Danish GDP is expected to decrease by 3.6 per cent overall this year. Internationally, many countries are in deep recession. This puts a damper on Danish export opportunities in the future. At the same time, some domestic industries will be subject to restrictions for a period of time. Recovery will be more gradual for these industries. The different relief packages are useful in the current situation. However, they should be phased out in line with restrictions being lifted, as they hamper business sector dynamics and labour market mobility.

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Analysis
23-09-2020

Prospects of moderate recession

​This is Danmarks Nationalbank's conclusion in its new projection for the Danish economy, in which gross domestic product (GDP) is forecast to decrease by 3.6 per cent in 2020 as a whole as a result of the heavy economic downturn in the spring. The recovery of economic activity is expected to continue, but at a slower pace. GDP is forecast to increase by 3.6 per cent in 2021 and by 2.3 per cent in 2022. However, there is great uncertainty about the economic development, which will be strongly influenced by how the spread of the coronavirus develops in the coming period.

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Press Releases
23-09-2020

Monetary and financial trends - Stable financial markets support economy in recession

Financial markets have been relatively calm since end-March. Central banks' actions during the spring are a main reason that financial markets have calmed down. Financing costs for households and non-financial corporations have declined in Denmark, and they are now on the same level as in the start of 2020. The krone exchange rate towards the euro is moderately strengthened since March. At end-August Danmarks Nationalbank had not intervened in the foreign exchange market during the past five months. The monetary interest rates are unchanged as well. Credit growth is low in Denmark compared to the euro area.

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Analysis
22-09-2020

Signe Krogstrup is appointed as a new member of Danmarks Nationalbank's Board of Governors

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Press Releases
21-09-2020

Working Paper: Spending when illiquid savings become liquid: Evidence from Danish wage earners

This paper offers new empirical evidence on the marginal propensity to consume out of an unanticipated liquidity shock. The results show a 43 dollar spending increase for each 100 dollar increase in liquid resources. The estimated spending patterns are consistent with the notion of wealthy hand-to-mouth behaviour.

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Working paper
21-09-2020

Increased turnover during corona crisis

The daily turnover in the Danish money market was kr. 93 billion in the 2nd quarter of 2020, which was an increase of 23 per cent compared to the same period last year. This appears from Danmarks Nationalbank's yearly money market survey, which includes turnover from interbank loan transactions and interest rate derivatives in the 2nd quarter. The increased turnover should be viewed in the light of elevated market volatility during the corona crisis and tighter liquidity conditions than previous years.

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Money, foreign exchange and derivatives market
16-09-2020

Payments before, during and after the corona lockdown

The corona pandemic and the lockdown of Danish society in spring 2020 gave rise to considerable uncertainty for many households. The lockdown and infection fears caused radical changes in consumption patterns and payment habits. This analysis looks at consumer payment habits before, during and after the corona lockdown. The analysis is based on a number of data sources used to draw information on the main trends in payment behaviour in Denmark during the lockdown and the first phases of the reopening.

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Analysis
16-09-2020

Danes primarily opt for electronic payment solutions

In Denmark, consumers typically use their payment card or mobile telephone when paying for goods and services. Our position as one of the world's most digitalised societies is reflected in our payment behaviour. The analysis presents the most important insights into the development of Danes' electronic payment habits based on Danmarks Nationalbank's detailed household survey from 2019.

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Analysis
03-09-2020

More pension savings in unlisted assets

During the second quarter, the insurance and pension sector invested kr. 8 billion in assets not listed on a stock exchange – unlisted assets. Since the beginning of 2018, the insurance and pension sector has invested kr. 206 billion in unlisted assets, which have increased from 23 pct. to 27 pct. as a share of total investments. Besides increased investing, value changes have also contributed to the increase in unlisted assets.

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Insurance and pension
02-09-2020

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, August 2020

​In August 2020, the foreign-exchange reserve increased by kr. 26 million to kr. 455.7 billion.

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Press Releases
01-09-2020

Low level of payment card fraud during lockdown

In the second quarter of 2020, the level of Danish payment card fraud was kr. 36 million, which is record low. This corresponds to 23 øre being misused for every kr. 1,000 paid with Danish cards. The fraud has been decreasing since 2016 when it was first calculated by Danmarks Nationalbank. In the most recent quarter, the decrease was kr. 14.5 million.

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Payments
31-08-2020

Update to the central government borrowing strategy in the 2nd half of 2020

The government's net financing requirement in 2020 is increased by kr. 70 billion. The increase primarily reflects an additional deferral of tax and VAT payments. The target for issuance of government bonds in 2020 is maintained at kr. 125 billion. Given that the increased borrowing requirement primarily reflects temporary liquidity shifts, it willl be covered by short-term issuances. The outstanding amount of T-bills is expected to be kr. 80-100 billion at the end of 2020.

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Government Debt
28-08-2020

How can joint measures to manage cyber risks be prioritised?

Some systemic risks can best be addressed jointly. The Danish financial sector has developed a methodology for prioritising the joint work on cyber risks. The sector works together to identify and address systemic risks on a structured basis. The methodology increases cyber security both for the individual institution and for society as a whole.

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Analysis
28-08-2020

Bonds with low coupon rates are on the rise

The Danish 30-year fixed callable mortgage bonds with fixed rate amounts to kr. 958 billion in July 2020 with 59 pct. having a low coupon rate at 1 pct. or lower. Since July last year, these mortgage bonds have risen by net kr. 443 billion.

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Securities
28-08-2020

Foreign investors continue to purchase 30-year fixed rate mortgage

In 2020, foreign investors have continuously purchased Danish 30-year fixed rate callable mortgage bonds. In July, foreign investors owned kr. 389 billion corresponding to ownership share of 41 per cent. Ownership shares are especially high in mortgage bonds with coupons of 1 and 1.5 per cent where ownership shares are 46 per cent.

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Portfolio investments
27-08-2020

Corporates' deposits are now larger than their loans

While banks previously lent more to corporate customers than they received in deposits, the opposite has been the case since May. In July, the banks' surplus on corporate deposits compared to lending increased by kr. 35.3 billion to kr. 56.6 billion.

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Banking and mortgage lending, balances
27-08-2020

Large fluctuations in rates on corporates foreign currency deposits

During the last few years, banks' interest rates on corporate deposits in foreign currency have exhibited large fluctuations compared with interest rates on deposits in Danish kroner. Interest rates on foreign currency deposits have been significantly reduced since September 2019 and have been relatively stable since May 2020.

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Banking and mortgage lending, interests
14-08-2020

Foreign direct investments decreased in 2nd quarter

Danish companies' direct investments abroad decreased by kr. 9 billion in the 2nd quarter of 2020. It was primarily driven by a decrease in intra-group loans. The outward direct investment consists of equity investments in and intra-group loans to foreign subsidiaries where the Danish investor has controlling influence.

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Foreign direct investment, flows
12-08-2020

IMF Assesssment of the Danish financial sector

​ The International Monetary Fund (IMF) has carried out an indepth analysis of the Danish financial system. The analysis has been carried out in the context of the IMF's Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP), the aim of which is to reduce the risk of financial crises.

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Press Releases
11-08-2020

Working Paper: News Uncertainty in Brexit UK

After the Brexit referendum, the behavior of the UK economy defied widespread expectations, as it did not exhibit a V-shaped recession, but a slow decline in production. We show that this pattern of propagation arises when uncertainty is about future, rather than current fundamentals, and if the expected duration of uncertainty is sufficiently long.

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Working paper
04-08-2020

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, July 2020

​In July 2020, the foreign-exchange reserve decreased by kr. 0.1 billion to kr. 455.6 billion.

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Press Releases
30-07-2020

Net purchases for more than kr. 11 billion in 2020

Private investors have had net purchases of UCITS fund shares for more than kr. 11 billion. At the end of June 2020, the market value of households' UCITS fund shares amounted to kr. 346 billion.

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Investment funds
28-07-2020

The Danes have kr. 796 billion invested in securities

Private Danish investors own securities worth of kr. 796 billion at the end of June 2020. These are securities that Danes own through banks and trading platforms, either in the form of free funds or in individual pension deposits. In addition, Danes own a significant amount of securities through their labor market pensions.

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Securities
28-07-2020

Big appetite for foreign stocks during the corona crisis

Following the large price declines in the global stock markets in March, private Danish investors have purchased a lot of foreign shares. In total, they have purchased foreign shares for kr. 4.0 billion in the period from March to June, which includes some of the largest monthly foreign share purchases ever.

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Portfolio investments
08-07-2020

Unchanged loan demand from NFCs

Danmarks Nationalbank's lending survey shows that the loan demand from the banks' existing corporate customers is overall unchanged from 1st to 2nd quarter of 2020 (net figure is 1.7). This is in contrast to the credit managers having a clear expectation that the demand would increase. Several of the banks mention i.a. the public aid packages as a possible explanation to the expectations not being fulfilled. 7 banks expect, however, that the loan demand increases in 3rd quarter, while 10 banks expect that the demand is unchanged.

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Lending survey
06-07-2020

Using input-output methods and high frequency indicators in assessment of GDP in 2020

The memo gives a technical summary of a system developed and used in Danmarks Nationalbank's assessment of the economic impact of the covid-19 crisis. The system combines input-output tables from the national accounts, the input-output model and Danmarks Nationalbank's high-frequency indicators. This allows for a high degree of details with regard to industries and final demands combined with high frequencies indicators for subgroups of private consumption possibly of daily frequencies. (Memo available in Danish only)

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Economic Memo
06-07-2020

Working Paper: Monetary and Fiscal Policies in Times of Large Debt Unity is Strength

We study the implications of a coordinated fiscal and monetary strategy aiming at creating a controlled rise of inflation to wear away a targeted fraction of debt. Under this strategy, the fiscal authority introduces an emergency budget with no provisions on how it will be balanced, while the monetary authority tolerates a temporary increase in inflation to accommodate the emergency budget.

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Working paper
03-07-2020

Losses on dollar assets contributed to pressure on the Danish krone

A new publication by Danmarks Nationalbank compares the pressure on the krone during the corona crisis with three earlier periods of krone pressure over the past 12 years. The pressure on the krone in March this year was unusual because it was not impacted by for example speculation about the Danish fixed exchange rate policy. Rather, it was caused by Danish institutional investors selling kroner in response to a decline in the value of their foreign assets.

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News
03-07-2020

Pressure on the Danish krone in times of crisis

The Danish krone was under weakening pressure in March 2020, following the outbreak of covid-19. Contrary to earlier episodes of pressure, the pressure in March 2020 was not driven by speculation about the sustainability of the Danish fixed exchange rate policy or the euro. The pressure in March was driven by the domestic insurance and pension sector and the investment fund investors, who sold kroner in response to losses on their foreign exchange assets.

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Economic Memo
02-07-2020

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, June 2020

​In June 2020, the foreign-exchange reserve decreased by kr. 6 million to kr. 455.8 billion.

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Press Releases
01-07-2020

New tools for assessing the economy

During the corona crisis, Danmarks Nationalbank has implemented new tools for its ongoing monitoring of the Danish economy. These include models for nowcasting gross domestic product, GDP, growth. Nowcasting models are advanced statistical models that process a wide range of key economic indicators and real-time indicators as they are released. The models include figures for employment, unemployment, inflation, house sales and a number of other key economic indicators as they are released. That way, the models can produce nowcasts of GDP growth for the current quarter.

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News
30-06-2020

BIS to establish Innovation Hub Centre in Stockholm

​The Bank for International Settlements, BIS, announced today to establish a BIS Innovation Hub Centre in Stockholm in collaboration with the central banks in Denmark, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The Nordic Innovation Centre will work to deepen the analysis of technological financial innovation relevant to central banks.

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Press Releases
30-06-2020

Danes' financial wealth decreased with kr. 454 billion in the 1st quarter

After a decline of kr. 454 billion in the 1st quarter, Danish households' net financial wealth – the difference between financial assets and debt – reached kr. 3,847 billion. This corresponds to a decrease of kr. 166 thousands for the average household since the last quarter, and thus the household's net financial wealth totals kr. 1.41 billion on average.

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Financial accounts
30-06-2020

Denmark's IIP reduced by kr. 289 billion

Denmark's international investment position, IIP, decreased in the 1st quarter of 2020 by kr. 289 billion, corresponding to a decrease of 16 per cent since the last quarter. The decrease is especially driven by large changes in share prices of foreign assets.

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Denmark's international investment position
30-06-2020

Danes bought foreign stocks in April and May

Danish investors have bought foreign listed portfolio stocks this year for a total of kr. 25 billion. The purchases were made especially in April and May in the wake of the large falls in the global stock indices. Buyers are primarily the insurance and pension sector, but other professional investors and private Danish investors have also bought.

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Portfolio investments
30-06-2020

Foreign investors bought Danish stocks

There has been a strong demand for Danish stocks from foreign investors who bought for kr. 3 billion in May. That was also the case in the first two months of the year, while foreign investors sold stocks in March. In total, the net purchase of Danish stocks from foreign investors amounts to kr. 17 billion the past year.

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Securities
29-06-2020

Fixed rate loans have the lead in 59 municipalities

In 59 of the 98 Danish municipalities, fixed rate loans now comprise the majority of homeowners' mortgage loans. That is 35 municipalities more than just a year ago. The development is a result of the decreasing interest rates over the past year, which have increased the Danes' appetite for fixed rate loans in connection with restructuring of existing loans and obtaining new loans. In addition, many have opted to increase their fixed rate loans in connection with a conversion to a lower interest rate. At the national level, however, loans with variable interest rates still dominate with a share of 51.2 per cent of the Danish homeowners' total mortgage loans of kr. 1,691 billion.

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Banking and mortgage lending, interests
29-06-2020

Bank loans to NFCs at its lowest for 6 years

Danish non-financial corporations (NFCs) reduced their loans from Danish banks by kr. 12.5 billion in May. This corresponds to a year-on-year credit growth of -1.6 per cent. As a result, total NFC lending is now down to kr. 432 billion. The year-on-year credit growth for NFCs has not been negative since the end of 2017. Although mortgage credit lending to NFCs has been increasing, it has not been enough to offset the decline in bank lending to NFCs.

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Banking and mortgage lending, balances
26-06-2020

Governor Hugo Frey Jensen retires

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Press Releases
26-06-2020

The effects of the corona shock on the banking sector and the real economy

This economic memo isolates two channels through which the "corona shock" affects the economy: a fall in asset prices and an increase in the dispersion of future shocks to the economy. Both shocks are contractionary, but they operate through different channels. A CCyB that is reactivated early reduces the impact of an asset price shock the most. In contrast, a CCyB that is reactivated late reduces the impact of a volatility shock the most.

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Economic Memo
24-06-2020

What's the story behind Danish households' rising debt?

Over the past four decades, debt has increased significantly faster than incomes and accounts for approx. 260 per cent of the disposable income of Danish households in 2020. This analysis presents a measure of household structural credit and reviews the economic factors that have contributed to this development. Besides higher incomes, greater wealth and lower borrowing costs have led to increasing debt over a long period of time. Both lower interest rates and regulatory easing have contributed to this development.

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Analysis
24-06-2020

The COVID-19 crises reduces Danish growth potential

Due to the covid19-crisis, it is projected that Danish potential GDP will grow at a slower pace in the coming years. Potential GDP is reduced by 1.1 per cent in 2022 compared to Nationalbanken's forecast from before the covid19 outbreak. The downward revision reflects a decline in structural employment as well as productivity. (Memo available in Danish only)

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Economic Memo
23-06-2020

Working Paper: The Macroeconomic Effects of Shadow Banking Panics

We study the effects of shadow banking panics in a macroeconomic model with a rich financial system, including deposit-financed retail banks and wholesale-financed shadow banks. The model can quantitatively match the dynamics of key variables around the US financial crisis. Wholesale funding market interventions akin to those implemented by the Federal Reserve in 2008 reduced the fall in output by about half a percentage point. Generally, central bank interventions reduce output volatility and the likelihood of banking panics.

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Working paper
17-06-2020

Outlook for the Danish economy - Prospects of gradual economic recovery

Behavioural changes and measures to contain the spread of coronavirus have hit the Danish and international economy hard, and prospects are for a record economic downturn in the 1st half of 2020. Since mid-April, the Danish economy has gradually reopened and activity has picked up. GDP is expected to contract by 4.1 per cent this year, driven primarily by developments in the first half of the year. The recovery is likely to be sluggish, especially because of subdued foreign demand. As a result, the economy is expected to be in a mild recession by the end of 2022.

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Analysis
17-06-2020

It will take time for the economy to recover

​In a new projection for the Danish economy, Danmarks Nationalbank estimates that the gross domestic product, GDP, will contract by 4.1 per cent this year. Next year, a partial recovery of economic activity is expected, with a 4.2 per cent expansion of GDP, while GDP growth in 2022 will be 1.6 per cent.

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Press Releases
17-06-2020

Monetary and financial trends - Stabilisation of financial markets after COVID-19 turmoil

Financial markets have stabilised after the turmoil in March triggered by COVID-19 and the subsequent actions taken to contain the virus. The turmoil on financial markets led temporarily to higher financing costs for both corporates and households. The financial conditions remain very accommodative, supporting developments in the Danish economy. Monetary policy rates have remained unchanged since 20 March, after Danmarks Nationalbank increased the interest rate on certificates of deposit by 15 basis points as a result of interventions in the foreign exchange market.

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Analysis
15-06-2020

Expansions do not necessarily end because of old age

The current expansion in the US has been historically long. In Denmark, the expansion has lasted for 10 years. This has increased focus on whether expansions die of old age. The length of expansions varies a lot across 19 OECD countries. About 20 per cent of all expansions have lasted longer than the current Danish expansion. Imbalances increase the risk of expansions dying. Recessions are short, but become longer if imbalances were present during the preceding expansion.

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Analysis
12-06-2020

Central government borrowing strategy in the 2nd half of 2020

The target for issuance of domestic government bonds in 2020 is maintained at kr. 125 billion. The on-the-run issues will remain unchanged, and focus will be on issuance in the 2- and 10-year nominal bonds. Part of the borrowing requirement in 2020 is met by issuances of short-term papers.

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Government Debt
11-06-2020

Working Paper: Dispersed consumption versus compressed output: assessing the sectoral effects of a pandemic

I process credit-card consumption data through an input-output model of sectoral linkages to impute the sector-level output responses to the Covid-19 pandemic. The sector-level consumption responses are highly dispersed and even positive for some. Yet, all sectors suffer from output losses. Production of intermediate goods stabilizes output. Consequently, the sectoral dispersion of final consumption is larger than sectoral dispersion of output produced.

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Working paper
08-06-2020

Large savings go hand-in-hand with high debt

Pension savings in Denmark have increased sharply since the 1990s. Over the same period, Danish household debt has also risen strongly. On average, a kr. 100 increase in pension wealth leads to a kr. 26 increase in total debt. This is one of the conclusions of a working paper in which economists Andreas Kuchler and Henrik Yde Andersen, Danmarks Nationalbank, and Niels Lynggård Hansen, the European Stability Mechanism (ESM), have analysed extensive data on pension savings and household debt.

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News
08-06-2020

Working Paper: Mandatory pension savings and long-run debt accumulation: Evidence from Danish register data

This paper uses two decades of individual level information from Danish administrative registers to investigate the connection between pension wealth and debt accumulation. A 1-dollar increase in pension wealth leads to a 26-cent rise in total debt. Liquidity constraints seem to play a key role, and we couple the crowding-out effect with an increased propensity to use interest-only mortgages.

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Working paper
04-06-2020

Worker flows and reallocation in COVID-19 exposed sectors in the Danish economy

Past worker flows show that among the sectors hit hard by the COVID-19 epidemic, workers in "Transportation" accumulate relatively more human capital. In the event of large worker reallocation, this sector's productivity would be hit harder and need longer to recover due to the loss of firm and sector-specific knowledge and skills of the departing workers.

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Economic Memo
04-06-2020

Large losses on investments

In the first quarter of 2020, the insurance and pension sector lost kr. 258 billion on their investments, corresponding to 6 per cent. In March alone, the loss was kr. 293 billion (7 per cent).

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Insurance and pension
03-06-2020

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, May 2020

​In May 2020, the foreign-exchange reserve increased by kr. 4.9 billion to kr. 455.8 billion.

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Press Releases
03-06-2020

Solid demand for Danish bonds

In April, foreign investors bought Danish bonds. Foreign investors bought, among other things, fixed-rate mortgage bonds and have increased their ownership to 34 per cent. Their ownership share has been in significant growth for many years, rising by 3.5 percentage points since the October pay date last year.

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Portfolio investments
03-06-2020

Companies' payouts to shareholders on par with previous years

At the end of the dividend season in April, Danish listed companies, which are not banks, had paid out just below kr. 42 billion to shareholders in the form of dividends and repurchases of own shares. It is on par with what has typically been paid out in the last 5 years. The banks, on the other hand, have greatly reduced their payments.

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Securities
02-06-2020

Danmarks Nationalbank's comments on the recommendations of the Government's expert commission

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Statements
27-05-2020

Banks are facing hard times

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Press Releases
27-05-2020

Credit institutions are facing hard times

The coronavirus outbreak has influenced banks’ results in the 1st quarter of 2020 reflected in the largest impairment charges for the largest banks since the 2008-09 financial crisis. How severely the economy and the banks will be affected remains highly uncertain. Credit institutions today enjoy both better capitalisation and higher excess liquidity than in the run-up to previous downturns. But it is important for institutions to ensure sufficient distance to the requirement through issuance of MREL-eligible debt instruments.

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Analysis
27-05-2020

A prolonged recession could squeeze banks

A stress test of the banking sector shows that most banks should have sufficient capital to weather a steep, but temporary economic downturn. The banks are better capitalized than before the financial crisis and can withstand greater losses than those incurred during the financial crisis. If the downturn turns into a longer lasting recession, more banks are at risk of breaching their capital requirements.

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Analysis
27-05-2020

Increased loan activity, but limited effect on total corporate lending

In March and April, the volume of new and renegotiated loans from the banks to Danish corporate customers reached kr. 40 and 44 billion, respectively. The scope is above the level for 2019, but not atypical compared to previous years' loan activity. The loan activity has so far had a limited effect on the banks' total corporate lending, which has increased by kr. 7.1 billion from February to April.

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Banking and mortgage lending, balances
27-05-2020

Danes' now pay less in interest than fees

Since March, Danes' interest payments have been below the administration fees on their mortgage loans. This is mainly due to the fact that the average interest rate has been reduced significantly over a longer period. The drop of the interest rates has meant that interest expenses have more than halved since 2014.

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Banking and mortgage lending, interests
18-05-2020

Working Paper: Bad Jobs and Low Inflation

The low rate of inflation observed in the U.S. over the entire past decade is hard to reconcile with traditional measures of labor market slack. We show that an alternative notion of slack that encompasses workers' propensity to search on the job explains this missing inflation.

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Working paper
12-05-2020

Governor Lars Rohdes lecture on Macroprudential policy in Denmark held at University of Copenhagen

Governor Lars Rohdes lecture on Macroprudential policy in Denmark held at University of Copenhagen, 12 May 2020.

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Speeches
05-05-2020

Oversight of the financial infrastructure 2019

The report presents the conclusions of Danmarks Nationalbank’s oversight of the Danish financial infrastructure in 2019. The core payment and settlement systems and most important payment solutions extensively comply with international safety and efficiency standards. Risk management has been strengthened across systems and solutions, and work is ongoing to increase cyber resilience, including through the participation in the socalled TIBER-DK tests.

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Report
05-05-2020

Private investors lost almost kr. 40 billion

Private Danish investors lost almost kr. 40 billion on their UCITS fund shares in Q1 2020. At the end of March their shares had a market value of kr. 315 billion.

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Investment funds
04-05-2020

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, April 2020

​In April 2020, the foreign-exchange reserve increased by kr. 78.8 billion to kr. 450.9 billion.

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Press Releases
01-05-2020

From foreign bonds to stocks in March

Danish investors sold foreign bonds for kr. 26.1 billion in March. It is the largest sale in a single month since December 2016. On the other hand, they bought foreign shares etc. for kr. 3.4 billion in March. The large purchases and sales must be seen in the light of the extraordinary fluctuations in the global stock and bond markets during March as a result of the coronavirus.

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Portfolio investments
01-05-2020

Danish return dip in March

Danish listed shares had a return incl. dividends of -5.3 per cent in March. The return was -5.7 per cent in February. Over a five-year period this is only surpassed by the return loss of -7.9 per cent in October 2018, where the global stock markets were affected by trade conflict and lower expectations for future economic growth. The return incl. interest payments of the Danish bond market was -1.9 per cent in March. The extraordinary financial uncertainties resulting from the coronavirus were thus reflected in the Danish equity and bond returns, which showed high volatility in March 2020 - both in upwards and downwards direction.

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Securities
30-04-2020

Lending increased by 2.3 per cent in March

Bank lending to Danish non-financial corporations (NFCs) increased by 2.3 per cent in March compared to the same month the year before. Lending growth is thus roughly in line with the growth seen in January and February. At the end of March, banks' total lending to businesses was kr. 453 billion.

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Banking and mortgage lending, balances
30-04-2020

Private deposits for kr. 34 billion at a negative rate

3.5 per cent of private customers' deposits had in February negative interest rates, corresponding to deposits of approximately kr. 34 billion. The results are from a new survey by Danmarks Nationalbank covering the medium-sized and large banks. For medium-sized banks, the percentage of deposits with negative interest rates was 3.0, while for the largest banks the share was 4.2 per cent.

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Banking and mortgage lending, interests
23-04-2020

Danmarks Nationalbank has concluded an agreement to divest its ownership share in VP Securities

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Press Releases
17-04-2020

Expect increased losses and demand from NFC

In Danmarks Nationalbank's lending survey for the 1st quarter of 2020, credit managers in 8 of the 17 surveyed banks report an increase in losses on corporate lending. All 17 banks expect their corporate loan losses to increase further in the 2nd quarter. Furthermore, 14 of the banks expect their losses on loans to private customers to increase. The lending survey was conducted after the government in mid-March conducted a series of temporary measures to reduce infection-spreading of coronavirus.

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Lending survey
15-04-2020

New commemorative coin to mark the 80th birthday of HM The Queen on 16 April 2020

​On the occasion of the 80th birthday of Queen Margrethe II on 16 April 2020, Danmarks Nationalbank will issue a commemorative coin.

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Press Releases
15-04-2020

The Danish government has a good starting point to finance the expenses related to Corona

The support packages passed by the Danish parliament to counter the negative economic impact from the coronavirus means that the central government is expected to increase its spending significantly and will see large but initially temporary shifts in liquidity during the summer. Therefore, it is necessary for the government to show flexibility by using the various financing sources available.

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Analysis
03-04-2020

Danish and international economy hit by pandemic

Economic activity has slowed sharply as a result of the outbreak of coronavirus, the measures to contain the infection and the resulting behavioural changes. A favourable starting point for the Danish economy improves its ability to deal with the economic consequences of the crisis. Danmarks Nationalbank supports the relief packages, which will temporarily help sustain employment and businesses, but more traditional fiscal stimulus may be needed going forward. Public debt will grow as a result of the downturn and relief packages, but there is room for that. For 2020 as a whole, real GDP growth is estimated to be between -3 and -10 per cent. (This publication is a translation of the analysis published 1 April 2020 in Danish only).

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Analysis
02-04-2020

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, March 2020

​In March 2020, the foreign-exchange reserve decreased by kr. 56.9 billion to kr. 372.1 billion.

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Press Releases
01-04-2020

The coronavirus causes large but temporary downturn in Danish economy

​The boom in the Danish economy has come to an abrupt end in early 2020. The outbreak of the coronavirus and the measures implemented to contain its spread have led to a sharp contraction in economic activity. In an analysis, Danmarks Nationalbank has listed three scenarios, illustrating how severely the Danish economic activity may be affected. These scenarios are subject to exceptionally high uncertainty.

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Press Releases
31-03-2020

Statistics News, 4th quarter 2019 - Net IIP of 78 per cent of the gross domestic product

Denmark's international investment position (IIP) was kr. 1,814 billion or 78 per cent of GDP at the end of 2019. IIP increased kr. 367 billon last year, primarily driven by a record-high current account surplus of kr. 184 billion. Just 10 years ago, Denmark han an IIP of zero. This release addresses the latest figures in the statistics for 'Denmark's international investment position' which is from the end of 4th quarter 2019. Since then, extraordinary big changes in the economy have occurred due to covid-19. At the end of June, Danmarks Nationalbank will update this statistic with the figures for the 1st quarter of 2020.

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Denmark's international investment position
31-03-2020

Statistics News, 4th quarter 2019 - Households' financial net wealth grew in 2019

The net financial wealth of Danish households increased by 721 billion Danish kroner in 2019. The total net financial wealth was kr. 4,312 billion by the end of 2019, which corresponds to kr. 1.58 million per household. The net financial wealth of households has increased significantly since the financial crisis in 2009, and the households have built up a financial buffer against downturns. There exists a significant degree of diversification between the sizes of the net financial wealth amongst the Danish households. This diversification implies that the effect of the price movements on the financial markets differs between households. This release addresses the latest figures in the statistics for 'Financial accounts' which are from the end of 4th quarter 2019. Since then, extraordinary big changes in the economy have occurred due to covid-19. At the end of June, Danmarks Nationalbank will update this statistic with the figures for the 1st quarter of 2020.

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Financial accounts
27-03-2020

Statistics News, February 2020 - Foreign investors own more than half of the Danish stock market

At the end of February, the Danish listed stock market amounted to kr. 2,840 billion. This release addresses the latest figures in the statistics for 'Securities' which are from the end of February 2020. Since then, extraordinary big changes in the economy have occurred due to covid-19. At the end of April, Danmarks Nationalbank will update this statistic with the figures for March.

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Securities
27-03-2020

Statistics News, February 2020 - Foreign portfolio investments for kr. 3,197 billion

Danish investors increased their foreign portfolio investments by kr. 23 billion in February. With this, Danish investors' total foreign portfolio amounted to kr. 3,197 billion at the end of the month. This release addresses the latest figures in the statistics for 'Portfolio investments' which are from the end of February 2020. Since then, extraordinary changes in the economy have occurred due to covid-19. At the end of April, Danmarks Nationalbank will update this statistic with the figures for March.

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Portfolio investments
26-03-2020

Statistics News, February 2020 - Corporations' deposit rates were record low

Deposit rates vis-à-vis non-financial corporations and personally owned companies have fallen by 0.21 and 0.27 percentage points, respectively, over the past 12 months. The decline has been particularly marked since September 2019. At the end of February, average deposit rates reached -0.38 and -0.14 per cent respectively. This release addresses the latest figures in the statistics for loans which are from February 2020. Since then, extraordinarily large changes in the economy have occurred due to covid-19. At the end of April, Danmarks Nationalbank will update this statistics with the figures for March.

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Banking and mortgage lending, interests
26-03-2020

Statistics News, February 2020 - Danish NFCs had kr. 426 billion in the bank

At the end of February, Danish non-financial corporations (NFCs), which here cover both public and private non-financial corporations in addition to sole proprietors and unincorporated partnerships, had deposits for kr. 426 billion in Danish banks. The NFCs' deposits have increased by approximately kr. 150 billion since 2012 which corresponds to an increase of just above 50 per cent. This release addresses the latest figures in the statistics for 'Banking and mortgage lending, balances' which are from the end of February 2020. Since then, extraordinary large changes in the economy have occurred due to covid-19. At the end of April, Danmarks Nationalbank will update this statistics with the figures for March.

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Banking and mortgage lending, balances
24-03-2020

Danmarks Nationalbank announces auction of US dollar liquidity

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Press Releases
20-03-2020

Danmarks Nationalbank and ECB reactivate swap line to provide euro liquidity

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Press Releases
20-03-2020

Annual Report 2019

Danmarks Nationalbank's accounts for 2019 show a profit of kr. 6,096 million, compared with a loss of kr. 24 million in 2018. Both the gold stock, equity exposure and bond holdings contributed significantly to the result for the year. This report is based on information available up to 7 March 2020.

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Report
19-03-2020

Interest rate increase and expansion of lending facility

​Effective from 20 March 2020, Danmarks Nationalbank's interest rate on certificates of deposit is increased by 0.15 percentage point. The monetary policy spread to the euro area is thereby narrowed from -0.25 to -0.10 percentage points, remaining lower than the rate in the euro area. In the context of Denmark's fixed exchange rate policy, the interest rate increase follows Danmarks Nationalbank's sale of foreign exchange in the market.

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Press Releases
19-03-2020

Danmarks Nationalbank has established a bilateral swap agreement in dollars with the Federal Reserve

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Press Releases
16-03-2020

Update to the central government borrowing strategy 2020

In light of the recent initiatives taken by the Danish Government to mitigate the consequences of COVID-19, the domestic government bond issuance target for 2020 is increased from kr. 75 to 125 billion. Furthermore, the opening of the new 30-year nominal bond is brought forward to 1 April and the T-bill programme is expanded.

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Government Debt
16-03-2020

Mint of Finland to continue producing Danish coins from 2021

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Press Releases
12-03-2020

Danmarks Nationalbank's interest rates unchanged and launch of extraordinary lending facility

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Press Releases
10-03-2020

Euro area remains the little brother in transatlantic relations

The euro area economy and its financial sector remains disproportionately more vulnerable to shocks originating from the US than in reverse, as demonstrated in a brand-new international study with data spanning four decades. In an original empirical study, Eddie Gerba from Danmarks Nationalbank and Danilo Leiva-Leon from Banco de España have analysed and compared the interaction between the financial sector and the macroeconomy in the US and the euro area over the past four decades.

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News
10-03-2020

Working Paper: Macro-financial interactions in a changing world

We measure the time-varying strength of macro-financial linkages within and across the US and euro area economies. The main results show that the euro area is disproportionately more sensitive to shocks in the US macroeconomy and financial sector. Moreover, while macro-financial interactions have steadily increased in the euro area since the late 1980s, they have oscillated in the US, exhibiting very long cycles of macro-financial interdependence.

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Working paper
09-03-2020

Opening of 0.25 per cent bullet loan 2052

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Government debt news
06-03-2020

Working paper: The impact of inflation targeting: Testing the good luck hypothesis

Was the fall in the level and volatility of inflation over the last 30 years the result of good luck, or good monetary policy? We assess the inflation experience of Canada, an early adopter of an inflation targeting policy. Good luck explains only a minor portion of the changes in inflation after the shift in policy. Most of inflation and output stabilization is explained by the impact on expectations.

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Working paper
04-03-2020

Insurance companies and pension funds continue to invest in unlisted assets

Over recent years, low bond yields and low expected returns on other assets have prompted insurance companies and pension funds (I&P companies) to continue investing more pension savers’ funds in unlisted assets such as wind farms, infrastructure, forestry, unlisted enterprises, private equity funds, properties and alternative types of debt. For the first time, newly developed statistics from Danmarks Nationalbank provide a comprehensive overview of this important development.

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News
04-03-2020

High returns on listed shares in 2019

2019 has yielded strong returns for the insurance and pension sector. This is especially true for investments in listed equities, which have yielded a return of 30 per cent. Half of the holdings in foreign equities are located in the United States, and the return therefore follows developments in the US stock market, summarized in e.g. the S&P 500 index.

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Insurance and pension
03-03-2020

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, February 2020

​In February 2020, the foreign-exchange reserve increased by kr. 2.7 billion to kr. 429.0 billion.

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Press Releases
02-03-2020

Most deposits happened via ATM

In the 4th quarter of 2019, Danish private and corporate customers deposited cash into the bank account 1.8 million times for a total amount of kr. 14.8 billion. In 59 per cent of the cases, the deposit was made via an ATM, while 22 and 19 per cent were made via over-the-counter, OTC, and night safe, respectively. In a few years, deposits via ATMs have become the most widespread method, when the money goes into the account.

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Payments
28-02-2020

Lower coupon rate on mortgage bonds

The mortgage banks have increased the amount of 30-year fixed-rate convertible mortgage bonds with a coupon rate of 1.5 per cent or lower by kr. 522 billion in the past year. At the same time, the outstanding amount of bonds with a coupon rate greater than 1.5 per cent decreased. Since February 2019, the net addition of 30-year fixed-rate mortgage bonds totalled kr. 132 billion.

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Securities
28-02-2020

Foreign ownership share in mortgage credit bonds has risen

Foreign investors' appetite for 30-year fixed-rate mortgage bonds is undiminished. Over the past year, foreign investors' purchases of these bonds totaled kr. 58 billion, and the foreign ownership share reached 39 per cent of a total outstanding of kr. 899 billion in January.

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Portfolio investments
27-02-2020

Equity risk premium has increased while interest rates have fallen

Before the financial crisis, investors typically expected an annual return on equities of around 7 per cent, while the return on 10-year treasury bonds was around 4 per cent. Today, the return on 10-year treasury bonds is close to zero, while investors still expect a return of around 7 per cent when investing in equities. The risk premium for investing in the equity market rather than safe assets such as government bonds has thus doubled since the start of the financial crisis more than 10 years ago.

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News
27-02-2020

Do equity prices reflect the ultra-low interest rate environment?

Economic Memo is a new publication series from Danmarks Nationalbank. Please, update your News service settings if you want to receive a notification when the next Economic Memo is available. The first Economic Memo shows that the equity risk premium has doubled after the financial crisis. As a result, financing costs of corporations declined less than monetary policy rates. The memo looks into explanations behind the higher premium.

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Economic Memo
27-02-2020

Record low interest rate of 0.84 per cent

Almost two-thirds of Danes' mortgage loans got new interest rates in 2019. The many loans with new interest rates resulted in a decrease in the average interest rate (excluding administration fee) on Danes' mortgage loans during the year from 1.20 per cent to record low 0.84 per cent. The lower interest rate corresponds to an average annual saving before tax of kr. 3,600 per million borrowed.

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Banking and mortgage lending, interests
27-02-2020

Reduced interest rate sensitivity for agriculture

The agricultural industry's bank and mortgage debt with a variable interest rate has been reduced by kr. 36 billion, corresponding to 13 per cent, the last five years. At the end of January 2020, it was down to kr. 250 billion. The decrease is due to, among other things, increasing instalments. Variable rate loans now amount to 83 per cent of the industry's total bank and mortgage debt of kr. 301 billion.

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Banking and mortgage lending, balances
26-02-2020

Cash payments are declining

Danmarks Nationalbank has conducted a survey of the Danish households' use of cash. According to the survey, more and more Danes opt out of using cash as a means of payment, and there is considerable evidence that this trend will continue in the future. However, an entirely cashless society is not envisaged in the foreseeable future.

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Analysis
14-02-2020

Largest investments abroad for over 10 years

Danish companies made direct investments abroad for kr. 68 billion in 2019 after a reduction in investments the year before. These are the largest investments since 2008.

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Foreign direct investment, flows
04-02-2020

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, January 2020

​In January 2020, the foreign-exchange reserve decreased by kr. 14.9 billion to kr. 426.3 billion.

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Press Releases
04-02-2020

Expiring interest-only mortgages have implications for household expenditure

Interest-only mortgages are very popular in Denmark, currently making up 45 per cent of outstanding mortgage volumes. These loans allow homeowners to postpone repayment on the mortgage principal - typically for up to 10 years after origination - reducing monthly instalments for a period of time. A small share of borrowers need to cut spending in order to fund the rise in mortgage instalments when the 10 year amortization-free period ends. This analysis show that the reduction in expenditure is substantial for the affected homeowners but the overall effect on the Danish economy is very limited.

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Analysis
31-01-2020

Danish government borrowing and debt 2019

Denmark's central government debt amounted to 18 per cent of GDP at the end of 2019. The debt has decreased considerably since 2012, when it peaked after the financial crisis. The central government's financing requirement was met at record-low yields in 2019. The central government issued nominal bonds at an average yield to maturity of -0.33 per cent p.a. and an average maturity of 8 years. Interest costs on the central government debt totalled 0.6 per cent of GDP. In 2019, the central government purchased all the bonds issued for financing social housing. Since early 2018, the central government has purchased bonds for almost kr. 95 billion at market value.

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Government Debt
31-01-2020

The total UCITS market value is kr. 1.081 billion

The market value of Danish UCITS investment funds reached kr. 1.081 billion at the end of 2019.

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Investment funds
29-01-2020

Danish investors preferred foreign bonds in 2019

Danish investors have purchased foreign bonds net kr. 123 billion in 2019. Furthermore investors have bought foreign shares and investment funds shares for approx. kr. 17 billion 2019 in total.

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Portfolio investments
29-01-2020

High return in 2019

The return on Danish listed stocks was 29.1 per cent in 2019. This is the highest return since 2015. On the Danish bond market the return was 2.2 per cent, which is the highest since 2016. The increases in the return are due to price increases. The Danish stock and bond market had a market value of kr. 2.938 billion and kr. 4.216 billion, respectively, by the end of 2019.

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Securities
28-01-2020

Decreased repayment rates in 2019

The repayment rates for Danish non-financial corporations (NFC's) and households decreased 0.21 and 0.13 percentage points respectively compared to 2018. This translates to an annual saving of kr. 2,104 and kr. 1,282 respectively per borrowed million.

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Banking and mortgage lending, interests
28-01-2020

Modest credit growth in 2019

Lending from banks and mortgage credit institutions (MCI's) to non-financial corporations (NFC's) and households grew 2.9 percent in 2019. This is a slight increase compared to 2018, but significantly lower compared to the peak in the 2000s where the total credit growth reached 16.9 per cent. Loans to these two sectors totalled kr. 3,749 billion in December 2019.

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Banking and mortgage lending, balances
22-01-2020

Working paper: Modeling frailty correlated defaults with multivariate latent factors

It is typically assumed within corporate default modeling that the covariates have a linear effect on the log-hazard scale, no interactions, and that there is only a single additive latent factor on the log-hazard scale. Using a sample of US corporate firms, we show in this paper that these standard assumptions are too strict and that they matter in practice. We propose instead a frailty-model that relaxes these assumptions and takes into account time-varying covariates, while being able to provide forecasts for arbitrary portfolios.

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Working paper
21-01-2020

Stricter lending requirements have made homeowners more robust

Danish authorities have implemented a number of regulations targeting mortgage financing. The new regulations provide incentives for the most indebted homeowners to increase amortization on their mortgages thereby increasing the robustness of the housing market. As the new rules have been implemented, mortgage credit institutions have managed to increase their issuance of new mortgages to first time buyers as well as older existing home owners remortgaging.

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Analysis
14-01-2020

Slightly tighter credit standards

In Danmarks Nationalbank's lending survey for the 4th quarter 2019, 4 of the 17 credit managers in the surveyed banks report that they have tightened the credit standards slightly compared to last quarter. When the credit managers' answers are weighted with the market share of their respective bank, the credit standards for lending to corporate and private customers on average are tightened by approximately -6 and -3, respectively (where 0 corresponds to unchanged credit standards and -50 corresponds to all the banks having tightened slightly).

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Lending survey
09-01-2020

Homeowners reduce consumption when the non-amortisation period ends

Homeowners’ with interest-only mortgages reduce consumption by an average of 3 per cent of income when amortisation starts if they are unable to roll over their interest-only loans into new ones as they might have expected to do. This corresponds to a reduction in expenditure of kr. 14,000 per homeowner per year. This appears from a Working Paper prepared by Henrik Yde Andersen, Senior Economist, Alessia De Stefani, Research Economist and Stine Ludvig Bech, Senior Economist.

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News
09-01-2020

Working paper: Mortgage choice and expenditure over the lifecycle: evidence from expiring interest-only loans

We study how homeowners’ consumption responds to the beginning of the amortization period on interest-only mortgages. In response to an average increase in mortgage instalments worth 9 per cent of annual income, consumption drops by 3 percent of income, in the year when amortization starts. This expenditure cut is persistent, but only affects a small subset of borrowers with high leverage ratios. These borrowers might have been unable to rollover their interest-only loans into new ones.

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Working paper
08-01-2020

Working paper: Banking panic risk and macroeconomic uncertainty

We show that systemic risk in the banking sector breeds macroeconomic uncertainty. We develop a model of a production economy with a banking sector where financial constraints of banks can lead to disastrous banking panics. We find that a higher probability of a banking panic increases uncertainty in the aggregate economy. We explore the implications of this banking panic-driven uncertainty for business cycles, asset prices and macroprudential regulation. Banking panic-driven uncertainty amplifies business cycle volatility and increases risk premia on asset prices. A countercyclical capital buffer lowers both the probability of banking panics and aggregate uncertainty.

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Working paper
07-01-2020

Price increases add to foreign owner ship of C25 stocks

2019 was a good year to own C25-stocks. The foreign owner share of C25-stocks increased to 57 per cent in November, corresponding to kr. 1,426 billion. The increase is due to the fact that foreign investors own the stocks that have had the largest price increases – especially the Novo stock where foreign investors own 73 per cent. Foreign ownership share of C25 stocks has thus increased again after a few years of decline. Foreign investors' stocks have had a total value increase of kr. 282 billion. By comparison, Danes' C25 stocks have risen by kr. 167 billion.

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Securities
07-01-2020

The Danish pension sector buys European bonds

The Danish pension sector has bought foreign bonds for kr. 129 billion since January 2018. The acquisition of foreign bonds consists mainly of bonds from the Euro area, especially Irish, French, and Italian government bonds. Additionally, the pension sector has purchased Swedish state and Hypotek bonds. Conversely, the pension sector has sold American and German government bonds.

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Portfolio investments
06-01-2020

The Danes' deposit rate approaches 0 per cent

The interest rate on Danish customers' ordinary deposits, which can be immediately withdrawn or used for payments, has been reduced further in the past year. The rate is approaching 0 per cent on average, when you disregard loan-related deposits.

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Banking and mortgage lending, interests
06-01-2020

Fixed-rate lending growth throughout the country

In the recent year, the Danes' mortgage loans have increased by 3.8 per cent. The relatively moderate growth in lending covers a large increase of 14.0 per cent in fixed-rate loans and a reduction of 3.7 per cent in variable-rate loans. Fixed-rate loans now take up 46.7 per cent of the total loans of kr. 1,667 billion.

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Banking and mortgage lending, balances
03-01-2020

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, December 2019

​In December 2019, the foreign-exchange reserve decreased by kr. 5.3 billion to kr. 435.4 billion.

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Press Releases
20-12-2019

Denmark's international investment position is growing

Denmark's international investment position increased by kr. 144 billion in the third quarter of 2019. This is the ninth consecutive quarter with an increase. The increase is mainly due to the large current account surplus and increases in value of the Danes' foreign assets.

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Denmark's international investment position
20-12-2019

The Danes' net wealth 6th largest in the EU

Danish households' net financial wealth – the difference between their financial assets (e.g. pension and deposits) and liabilities (debt) – was kr. 4,101 billion at the end of the second quarter of 2019. The net wealth corresponds to 177 per cent of the Danish gross domestic product, GDP. This ranks Danish households sixth only surpassed by households in the UK, the Netherlands, Belgium, Sweden and Italy.

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Financial accounts
18-12-2019

Low prevalence of zombie firms in Denmark

Weak firms, "zombies", account for less than 1.5 per cent of Danish firms, which is low compared with other countries. Interest rates have been falling for several years, but the risk of remaining a zombie has not increased. This indicates that lower interest rates have not resulted in a higher prevalence of zombies. Moreover, there are no indications that banks have eased conditions more for zombies than for other firms.

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Analysis
17-12-2019

Central government borrowing strategy 2020

The target for issuance of domestic government bonds and T-bills in 2020 is kr. 75 and kr. 30 billion, respectively. This is unchanged from 2019. Issuance will be focused in the 2- and 10-year maturity segments. A new 30-year nominal bond maturing in 2052 will be opened in the 1st half of the year.

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Government Debt
17-12-2019

Globalisation affects measures of wage competitiveness

Danish firms increasingly have goods processed abroad and sell them directly from abroad. This allows for a higher degree of specialisation, as well as capacity expansion. However, when firms outsource production, Danish value added is to some extent decoupled from use of Danish labour. This is a challenge when measuring wage competitiveness, so in this analysis adjustment is made for Danish firms' activities abroad. That provides a more accurate impression of the competitiveness of physical production in Denmark.

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Analysis
11-12-2019

Working paper: What is real and what is not in the global FDI network?

Macro statistics on foreign direct investment (FDI) are blurred by offshore centers with enormous inward and outward investment positions. This paper uses several new data sources to estimate the global FDI network while disentangling real investment and phantom investment and allocating real investment to ultimate investor economies. We find that phantom investment into corporate shells with no substance and no real links to the local economy may account for almost 40 percent of global FDI.

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Working paper
03-12-2019

Foreign Exchange and Liquidity and Monthly Balance Sheet, November 2019

​In November 2019, the foreign-exchange reserve decreased by kr. 1.9 billion to kr. 440.7 billion.

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Press Releases
03-12-2019

Speech by Governor Lars Rohde at Investment and Pensions Europe conference 2019

Speech by Governor Lars Rohde at Investment and Pensions Europe conference, 3 December 2019.

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Speeches
02-12-2019

Speech by governor Lars Rohde at the annual meeting of Finance Denmark 2019

Speech by governor Lars Rohde at the annual meeting of Finance Denmark 2 December 2019.

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Speeches
02-12-2019

Climate change can have a spillover effect on financial stability

This analysis is a first step in Danmarks Nationalbank's efforts to understand how climate change may affect macroeconomic and financial stability. Climate change may pose risks to the financial sector and financial stability. Financial institutions should understand and incorporate these risks into their risk management, and financial regulation should reflect the actual risks. A sound financial sector can contribute to the transition to a green economy by ensuring continued allocation of capital.

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Analysis